Pharmacognostic studies and anatomical peculiarities in medicinal plant Enicostemma axillare

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

KANCHAN SANDEEP DHAWLE
UMESH PRAVIN DHULDHAJ
RAMJAN MAHAMUDDIN MULANI

Abstract

Abstract. Mulani RM, Dhawle KS, Dhuldhaj UP. 2021. Pharmacognostic studies and anatomical peculiarities in medicinal plant, as Enicostemma axillare. Asian J Ethnobiol 4: 23-30. Pharmacognostic evaluations were carried out by plant material collection, preparation of herbarium; organoleptic properties, macroscopic characters, microscopic characteristics. For the physiological studies Transverse Sections (T.S.) of root, stem and leaves were taken and also powder analysis, physicochemical value determination such as total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-soluble and acid-insoluble ash were done. The distinguishing characters of Enicostemma axillare (Poir. ex Lam.) A. Raynal stem is the presence of parenchyma. Leaves microscopy indicates presence of anisocytic stomata, minor leaf veins, phloem transfer cells and numerous sclereids. Macroscopic study shows leaves and roots with glabrous-surface, and stem was tall simple to branch and maybe prostrate or ascending. Color variation indicates presence of different types of components and essential oils; determined the percentage of leaf, stem and root: ash values; water-soluble, acid-soluble and acid-insoluble ash values. This study provides anatomical properties for the proper identification and establishment of standards of E. axillare for the medicinal applications to treat diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers, hernia, swelling, itching, and insect poisoning. This helps in pharmacognostical standardization of drugs in crude form and also to differentiate them from adulterations.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Adewale OO, Oduyemi OI. 2014. Oral Administration of Leaf Extracts of Momordica charantia affects reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4(1): S521-524.
Ahmed EM, Nour BYM, Mohammed YG, Khalid HS. 2010. Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk medicine. Environmental Health Insights 4: 1-6.
Akbar S, Hanif U, Ali J, Ishtiaq S. 2014. Pharmacognostic Studies of Stem, Roots and Leaves of Malva parviflora L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4(5): 410-415.
Alam F, Us Saqib QN. 2015. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae), Ancient Science of Life, 34(3): 147-155.
Ameh SJ, Obodozie OO, Babalola PC, Gamaniel KS. 2011. Medical Herbalism and Herbal Clinical Research: A Global Perspective. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 1(4):99-123.
Bhargava VV, Saluja AK, Dholwani KK. 2013. Detection of Heavy Metal Contents and Proximate Analysis of roots of Anogeissus latifolia. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 1(6): 61-65.
Chaudhari GM, Mahajan RT. 2015. Comprehensive Study on Pharmacognostic, Physico and Phytochemical Evaluation of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. Stem bark. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 4(3): 186-193.
Geneva: WHO; 1996. WHO. Quality Assurance Pharmaceuticals: A Compendium of Guidelines and Related Materials, Good Manufacturing Practices and Inspection; p. 2.
Luz TR, Leite JA, Bezerra SA, de Mesquita LS, Ribeiro EC, De Mesquita JW, Silveira DP, Brito MC, Vilanova CM, do Amaral FM, Coutinho DF. 2019. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. leaves: A medicinal plant native from Brazilian Amazon. Phcog Res 11:333-8.
Mathew L, Babu S. 2011. Phytotherapy in India: Transition of Tradition to Technology. Current Botany 2(5): 26-30.
Momin RK, Kadam VB. 2011. Determination of Ash Values of Some Medicinal Plants of Genus Sesbania of Marathwada region in Maharashtra, Journal of Phytology 3(12): 52-54.
Musa KY, Katsayal AU, Ahmed A, Mohammad A, Danmalam Z. 2006. Pharmacognostic investigation of the leaves of Gisekia pharmacioides. Afr J Biotechnol 5: 956–7.
Nayak BS, Patel KN. 2010. Pharmacognostic studies of the Jatrophacurcas leaves. Int J PharmTech Res. 2:140–3.
Pathan UKK, Dhuldhaj UP, Mulani RM. 2018. Pharmacognostic Authentification of Genuine Crude Drug of Echinops echinatus (Roxb.), SRJIS V-7 (43): 4-10.
Raja P, Soosairaj S, Dhatchanamoorthy N, Tagore J. 2015. Floristic composition of aquatic angiosperms in different wetlands of Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu, India. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 5(12):6-12.
Sanmugarajah V, Thabrew I, Sivapalan SR. 2013. Phyto, Physicochemical Standardization of Medicinal Plant Enicostemma littorale, Blume. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 3(2): 52-58.
Shahina PM, Nampy S. 2014. Biosystematics Studies on Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in Peninsular India. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 17: 696-702.
Shakya AK. 2016. Medicinal Plants: Future source of new drugs. International Journal of Herbal Medicine 4(4): 59-64.
Upreti K, Semwal A, Upadhyaya K, Masiwal M. 2013. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical screening of Leaf Extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 1(1): 6-11.
World Health Organization. 1998. Quality Control Methods for Herbal Materials. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Zahid Z, Deshpande SD, Paithankar AP, Khan S, Rana ZA. 2011. Phytochemical Screening of Plant of Enicostemma axillare. IJRAP 2(1): 175-176.