Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

TEUKU ARMANSYAH
TONGKU NIZWAN SIREGAR
SUHARTONO
AMALIA SUTRIANA

Abstract

Abstract. Armansyah T, Siregar TN, Suhartono, Sutriana A. 2022. Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2111-2117. The use of antibiotics to treat endometritis in cattle carries with it some weaknesses in the form of toxicity risks and unexpected side effects. The use of medicinal plants as antimicrobials and immunomodulators has the potential to be an alternative therapy. Red betel leaves could be considered viable candidates for phytotherapy in cattle with endometritis. This study aimed to determine the differences in biological activity and antibacterial ability of red betel leaf through the use of three different solvents, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The highest yield of betel leaf extract was obtained from the ethyl acetate solvent fraction consisting of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, phenolics, and saponins. The highest biological compounds in red betel leaf identified by GC-MS in n-hexane solvent, ethyl acetate, and ethanol were 5-isobutylidene-N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid, benzenamine, 4,4' - (1,2-ethenediyl) bis-, and 9-octadecadienoic acid, respectively. Among the three solvent fractions of red betel leaf extract, it was observed that ethyl acetate exhibited higher antibacterial activity than hexane and ethanol. Hence, it can be concluded that ethyl acetate extract of red betel leaves solvent has secondary metabolites and better antibacterial potential than ethanol and n-hexane solvents.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Ahmad I, Lodhi LA, Qureshi ZI, Younis M. 2004. Studies on blood glucose, total proteins, urea and cholesterol levels in cyclic, non-cyclic and endometritic crossbred cows. Pakistan Vet J, 24 (2): 92-94.
Ahmed FO, Elsheikh AS. 2014. Treatment of repeat breeding in dairy cows with lugols iodine. IOSR J Agricult Vet Sci, 7 (4) : 22-26. DOI: 10.9790/2380-07412226
Ali TGM, Ameen FAM. 2014. Clinical and histological study of the effects of uterine infections on the pregnancy of dairy cows in Sulaimani region. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res, 4 (1): 63-68.
Alyasiri EA, Alwan AF, Al-Hamedawi TM. 2015. Comparative study of some intrauterine treatment regimens on bacterial causes repeat breeders in Iraqi buffaloes. Indian J Res, 4 (9): 188-190
Bhardwaz SP, Nema SS, Bagatti MS, Kumar S. 2018.Therapeutic efficacy of Lugol’s Iodine (I?KI) in infectious repeat crossbred cows. Int J Microbiol App Sci, 7 (12): 648-654. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.712.080
Budiyanto A, Tophianong TT, Triguntoro, Dewi HK. 2016. Bali cattle reproductive disorders of semi intensive management in the area of cattle ¬ oil palm integration system. Acta Vet. Indonesia, 4 (1): 14-18.
Carneiro LC , Cronin JG, Sheldon IM. 2016. Mechanisms linking bacterial infections of the bovine endometrium to disease and infertility. Reprod Biol, 16 (1): 1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.repbio.2015.12.002
Chawla R. 2014. Practical Clinical Biochemistry: Methods and Interpretations. 4th ed. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
Dewi YF, Anthara MS, Dharmayudha AAGO. 2014. Effectiveness of red betel leaf extract (Piper crocatum) on blood glucose level decreased white male rats (Rattus novergicus) induced alloxan. Bull Vet, 2 (6): 73-79.
Dima LL, Fatmawali RH, Widya AL. 2016. Uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera L) terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. J Ilmiah Farmasi, 2: 282-289. DOI:10.35799/pha.5.2016.12273
Drillich M. 2006. An update on uterine infectious in dairy cattle. Slov Vet Res, 43 (1): 11-15.
Gunarti N, Utari F. 2018. Antibacterial activity test of red betel leaf. J Farmasetis, 7 (2): 39-41.
Hamuel DJ. 2012. Phytochemicals: Extraction Methods, Basic Structures and Mode of Action as Potential Chemotherapeutic Agents. Department of Microbiology School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
Harborne JB. 1984. Phytochemical Methods. In Phytochemical Methods.DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-5570-7.
Harianingsih, Wulandari R, Harliyanto C, Andiani CN. 2017. Identifikasi GC-MS ekstrak minyak atsiri dari sereh wangi (Cymbopogon winterianus) menggunakan pelarut metanol. Techno, 18: 23-28.
Hermawan A. 2007. Pengaruh ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betel L.) terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli dengan metode difusi disk. http://www.journal.unair.ac.id/filerPDF/15.%20Daun%20Sirih.pdf.
Hodek P, Trevil P, Stiborova M. 2002. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact, 139 (1): 1-21. DOI:10.1016/s0009-2797(01)00285-x
Indriati G, Agustina, Widiana R. 2012. Daya hambat sari daun sirih merha terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri E. coli dan S. aureus. J Saintek, 4 (2): 141-142. DOI:10.31958/js.v4i2.68
Katuuk RHH, Wanget SA, Tumewu P. 2002. The effect of differences in site height on the content of secondary metabolites of babadotan weeds (Ageratum conyzoides L.). Biogenesis, 2 (2): 64-66.
Madike LN, Takaidza S, Pillay M. 2017. Preliminary phytochemical screening of crude extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Tulbaghia violacea. Int J Pharmaco Phytochem Res, 9 (10): 1300-1308. DOI:10.25258/phyto.v9i10.10453
Mido S, Murata N, Rawy MS. 2016. Effects of intrauterine infusion of
povidone-iodine on endometrial cytology and bacteriology in dairy cows
with clinical endometriosis. J Vet Med Sci, 78 (4): 551-556. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.15-0412
Ngajow M, Abidjulu J, Kamu VS. 2013. Pengaruh antibakteri ekstrak kulit batang matoa (Pometia pinnata) terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus secara in vitro. J MIPA Unsrat, 2(2): 128-132.
Novita W. 2016. Uji aktivitas antibakteri fraksi daun sirih (Piper betel L) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans secara in vitro. Jambi Med J, 4 (2): 140-155. DOI:10.22437/jmj.v4i2.3579
Nurasikin C, Marlina, Idroes R, Soraya C, Djufri. 2020. Identification of secondary metabolite of laban leaf extract (Vitex pinnata L.) from geothermal areas and non-geothermal of Agam mountains in Aceh Besar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Rasayan, 13 (1): 18-23. DOI:10.31788/RJC.2020.1315434
Nurhaen, Winarsi D, Ridhay A. 2016. Isolation and identification of chemical components of essential oils from leaves, stems, and flowers of Salembangu plants (Melissa sp.). J Natural Sci, 5 (2): 149-157.
Pelczar MJ, Chan ECS, 1986. Dasar-Dasar Mikrobiologi. 1st ed . Jakarta, UI Press
Permadi A, Sutanto S, Wardatun S. 2015. Perbandingan metode ekstraksi bertingkat dan tidak bertingkat terhadap flavonoid total herba ciplukan (Physalis angulata L.) secara kolorimetri. J Mahasiswa Bidang Farmasi. 1 (1): 1-10.
Priyambodo RA, Zainal NH. 2019. Daya antibakteri air perasan buah lemon (Citrus lemon (L) Burm F.) terhadap Streptococcus mutans dominan karies gigi. Media Kesehatan Gigi, 18 (2): 58-64. DOI:10.32382/mkg.v18i2.1404
Puspita JP, Safithri M, Sugiharti NP. 2018. Antibacterial activities of sirih merah (Piper crocatum) Leaf Extracts. J Curr Biochem, 5 (3): 1-10.
Putra SHR, Surjowardojo P, Setyowati E. 2017. Pemanfaatan daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) dalam menurunkan tingkat kejadian mastitis berdasarkan uji CMT dan SCC. J Ternak Tropika, 18 (2): 22-28. DOI: 10.21776/ub.jtapro.2017.018.02.4
Rafika I, Hafizuddin, Thasmi CN. 2020. Isolation and identification of gram negative bacteria in uterine Aceh cow with repeat breeding. Agripet, 8 (2): 31-36. DOI:10.17969/agripet.v20i2.17017
Rahmitasari RD, Suryani D, Hanifa NI. 2020. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of java plum (Syzygium cumini (L) skeels) leaves against clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi. J Farmasi Indonesia, 17 (1): 138-148. DOI: 10.30595/pharmacy.v17i1.6458
Rajeswari P, Rani S. 2015. GC-MC analysis of phytochemical compound in the ethanolic extract of root of Lawsonia inermis L. Int J Chem Tech Res, 7 (1): 389-399.
Rijayanti RP, Luliana S, Trianto HF. 2014. In vitro antibacterial activity test of ethanol extracts bacang mango (Mangifera foetida L.) leaves against Staphylococcus aureus. J Biomed Pharm Sci. https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/194452-ID-none.pdf
Safithri M, Fahma F, Marlina PWN. 2012. Proximate analysis and acute toxicity of Piper crocatum leaves extract as potential antidiabetics. J Gizi Pangan, 7 (1): 43-48.
Savitri E, Fakhrurrazi, Harris A. 2018. Antibacterial activity test of Moringa oleifera L. extracts on Staphylococcus aureus. JIMVET, 2 (3): 373-379.
Scenzi O. 2016. Recent possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of post parturient uterine disiases in dairy cow. Reprod Med Genet, 4 (1): 1-
DOI:10.4172/2375-4508.1000170.
Sheldon IM, Owens SE. 2017. Postpartum uterine infection and endometritis in dairy cattle. Anim Reprod, 14 (3): 622-629. DOI: 10.21451/1984-3143-AR1006
Sudarmadji S, Haryono B, Suharji. 1997. Prosedur Analisis untuk Bahan Makanan dan Pertanian. Penerbit Liberti, Yogyakarta
Syahidah A, Saad CR, Hassan MD, Rukayadi Y, Norazian MH, Kamarudin MS. 2017. Phytochemical analysis, identification and quantification of antibacterial active compounds in betel leaves, Piper betel methanolic extract. Pak J Biol Sci, 20 (2): 70-81. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.70.81
Tjandra RF, Fatimawati, Datu OS. 2020. Analisis senyawa alkaloid dan uji daya hambat ekstrak buah sirih (Piper betle L) terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus epiderdimis. Biomedik, 8(2): 173-179. DOI: 10.35790/eb,/v8i2.28963.
Wagner K, Grunert T, Prunner I, Ehling-Schulz M, Drillich M. 2014. Dynamics of uterine infections with Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis and Trueperella pyogenes in post-partum dairy cows and their association with clinical endometritis. Vet J, 202 (3): 527-532. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.08.023
Wang M-L, Liu M-C, Xu J, An L-G, Wang J-F, Zhu Y-H. 2018. Uterine microbiota of dairy cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis. Front Microbiol, 9: 1-11. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02691
Weni M. 2014. Aktivitas penghambatan ekstrak sirih merah (Piper crocatum) terhadap pembentukan malondialdehida (MDA) dan en¬zim tyrosinase. Scientific Repository. IPB University.
Yilmaz O, Kuyucuoglu Y, Sevimli A, Yazici E, Uçar M. 2012. Uterine microbiology and histopathology in repeat breeder anatolian water buffaloes: An abattoir study. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Dergisi, 18 (5): 791-798. DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2012.6446
Zhu Y, Zhu QX, Jia ZJ. 2001. Epoxide sesqui¬ terpenes and steroids from Cremanthodium dis¬coideum. Australian J Chem, 53 (10): 831-834. DOI: 10.1071/CH00100
Zubaidah A, Masitoh, Handajani M. 2021. Utilization of Nga champora leaf extract (Blumea balsamifera L) for teatment of motil Aeromonas septicaemia disease in catfish (Clarias gariepinus). J Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia 9 (1): 1-12.