Kawung: Landraces, management, uses, and conservation based on moral versus economic interest among Outer Baduy community, South Banten, Indonesia




Abstract. Iskandar BS, Iskandar J. 2021. Kawung: Landraces, management, uses, and conservation based on moral versus economic interest among Outer Baduy community, South Banten, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 5572-5584. The sugar palm or kawung (Arenga pinnata (Wurm) Merr.) has naturally or semi naturally grown in many rural areas of Banten and West Java. The sugar palm has social, economic, cultural, and ecological benefits for rural communities, but its population has dramatically decreased. This study aimed to access the knowledge, traditional management, uses and traditional conservation of sugar palm. This research used a qualitative method with an ethnoecological approach. The results showed that the Outer Baduy community has a rich knowledge of sugar palm. Two landraces of sugar palm are recognized by Outer Baduy mainly kawung gedé and kawung salompét. They have not intensively cultivated the sugar palm, but managed the kawung seedlings which grow naturally or assisted by civet or careuh in traditional agroforestry systems, including huma, reuma, leuweung lembur, and leuweung kolot. The weeds growing surrounding the seedlings are cleared, and then the seedlings will grow naturally and finally develop to mature trees. The sugar palm has been traditionally used for ecological, socio-economic, and cultural functions. The Outer Baduy community has traditionally conserved the sugar palm which grows in traditional agroforestry systems. The sugar palm trees, fruits, and the stems have never been cut, used as the sweetmeats, and made into sago flour, respectively, while the civets which have assisted distribution and regeneration of the sugar palm have never been hunted, and their habitat has never been destroyed.


Albuquerque UP, Cruz da Cunha LVF, de Lucena RFP, Alves RRN. 2014. Methods and Techniques in Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology. Humana Press, New York.
Amrul HMZN. 2018. The Use of Sugar Palm Trees in the Ceremony Sipaha Lima of Parmalim Communities. BioLink 4 (2): 170-174 [Indonesian].
Anwar 2018. The value of the benefits of palm plants (Arenga pinnata) in Taulan Village, Cendana District Enrekang Regency. Undergraduate report of Forestry Studies Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Muhammadiyah, Makassar [Indonesian].
Azhar I, Risnasari I, Serena MF, Riswan. 2019. The Utilization of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) by the People Around Batang Gadis National Park Area. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 305 (2019) 012016. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/305/1/012016.
Backer CA, Bakhuizen v.d Brink Jr.RC. 1968. Flora of Java Vol.1-3. Wolters-Noordhoff NV, Groningen.
Bélair C, Ichikawa K, Wong BYL, and Mulongoy KJ. (Editors). 2010. Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes. Background to the ‘Satoyama Initiative for the Benefit of Biodiversity and Human Well-being.’ Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 52,
Berkes F. 2012. Sacred ecology. Third Edition. Routledge, New York and London.
Coe MA and Gaoue G. 2020. Cultural Keystone Species Revisited: Are We Asking the Right Questions?. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 16 (70): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/13002-020-00422-z.
Erawan TS, Alillah AN, Iskandar J. 2018. Ethnobotany of Traditional Rituals in the Karangwangi Village, Cianjur District, West Java. Asian Journal of Ethnobiology 1 (2):53-60.
Fatriani, Sunardi, Prayudi F. 2012. Effect of age tree palm (Arenga pinnata Merr) Against Production of Nira in Pulantan Village, Awayan District, Balangan Regency, South Kalimantan Province. Jurnal Hutan Tropis 13 (1): 11-17
Febriyanti N, Hikmat A, Zuhud EAM. 2017. The Ethnobotany and Potential of Sugar Palm (Arengga pinnata Merr) on Kasepuhan Pasir Eurih Community, Sindanglaya Village, Lebak Regency, Banten. Media Konservasi 22 (2): 171-180. [Indonesian].
Gunawan R, Ramadhan UG, Iskandar J, Partasasmita R. 2018. Local Knowledge of Utilization and Management of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Among Cipanggulaan people of Karyamukti (Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia). Biodiversitas 19 (1): 93-105.
Heyne K. 1987. Useful plant of Indonesia. Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Jakarta [Indonesia].
Iskandar J 2012. Swidden Ecology of Baduy People: Forest Management Based on Culture and Sustainable System. Penerbit PT Alumni, Bandung [Indonesian].
Iskandar J. 2018. Ethnobiology, Ethnoecology and Sustainable Development. Plantaxia, Yogyakarta [Indonesian].
Iskandar, J. 2021. Pandemics and Sustainable Human Nature Relations: A Case Study in Baduy Community, South Banten Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 249 , 01001 (2021). https//doi.org/101051/e3sconf/202124901001.
Iskandar BS, Iskandar J, Irawan B, Suroso, Partasasmita R. 2019. The Development of Coffee Cultivation in the Traditional Agroforestry of Mixed-garden (Dukuh Lembur) to Provide Socio-economic Benefits for the Baduy Community, South Banten, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 20 (10): 2958-2969.
Iskandar J and Iskandar BS.2017. Various Plants of Traditional Rituals: Ethnobotanical Research Among the Baduy Community. Biosaintifica 9 (1): 114-125.
Iskandar J and Ellen R. 2000. In situ conservation of rice landraces among the Baduy of West Java. Journal of Ethnobiology 19 (1): 97-125.
Kurniawan T, Jayanudin, Kustiningsih I, Firdaus MA. 2018. Palm Sap Sources, Characteristics, and Utilization in Indonesia. Journal of Food and Nutrient Research 6 (9): 590-596.
Maffi L and Dilts O (eds). 2014. Biocultural Diversity Toolkit: Introduction to Biocultural Diversity. Terralingua, Salt Spring Island, British Columbia.
Mogea J, Seibert B, and Smith W. 1991. Multipurpose Palms: The Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr) Agroforestry Systems 13: 111-129.
Newing H, Eagle CM, Puri RK, Watson CW. 2011. Conducting Research in Conservation: Social Science Methods and Practice. Routledge, London and New York.
Platten S and Henfrey T. 2009. The Cultural Keystone Species Concept: Insight From Ecological Anthropology. Human Ecology 37: 491-500.
Rapini A. 2014. Introduction to botanical taxonomy. In Albuquerque UP, Cruz da Cunha LVF, de Lucena RFP, lves RRN (eds). Methods and Techniques in Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology. Humana Press, New York, Pp.123-139.
Ratnani DAS, Junitha IK, Kriswiyanti E, Dhana IN. 2021. The Ethnobotany of Ngusaba ceremonial plant utilization by Tenganan Pegringsingan Community in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22 (4): 2078-2087.
Reijntjes C, Haverkort B, and Waters-Bayer A. 1992. Farming for the future: An introduction to Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture. MacMillan Press Ltd, London and Basingstoke.
Seele BC, Esler KJ, Cunningham AB. 2019. Biocultural Diversity: a Mongolian Case Study. Ecology and Society 4 (4):7.https//doi.org/10.5751/ES-11207-24027.
Soemarworto O and Iskandar J. 2021. Plant Knowledge Richness in Sundanese Upland Village: A case Study in Sindangsari, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22 (9): 3722-3735.
Subrata SA and Syahbudin A. 2016. Common Palm Civet as a Potential Seed Disperser of Important Plant Species in Java. AIP Conference Proceedings 1744, 020053 (2016); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4953527.
Sujarwo W, Caneva G, Zuccarello V. 2020. Patterns of Plant Use in Offerings in Bali (Indonesia). Acta Botanica Brasillica 34 (1): 40-53. doi:10.1590/0102-33602019abb0110
Surya E, Ridhwan M, Armi, Jailani, Samsiar.2018. Sugar palm tree (Arenga pinnata Merr) conservation in the utilization of sugar palm tapped for enhancing community economics in Padang Village, Terbangun Sub-district, Gayo Lues District. BIOnatural 5 (2): 34-45 [Indonesian].
Vanderbroek I, Reyes-Garcia V, de Alburque UP, Bussmann R, Pieroni A. 2011. Local Knowledge: Who Cares?. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 7 (35): 1-7. http//www.etnomed.com/content/7/1//35.
Withaningsih S, Parikesit, Iskandar J, Putri R. 2019. Socio-ecological Perspective of Local Bio-resources Based Production System of Palm Sugar and Palm Flour from Aren (Arenga pinnata): Case Study of Sukaresmi Village, West Bandung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 20 (7): 1990-1997.
Withaningsih S, Pariksesit, Nursislamidi H. 2021. Management Strategies of Palm Sugar (Arenga pinnata) Production on Extreme Landscapes of Rongga, West Bandung Regency. International Journal of Conservation Science 12 (2): 625-640.
Zuhud EAM, Almanar P, Zuraida, Hidayati S. 2020. Potency and Conservation of aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurm) Merr.) in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java-Indonesia. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika 26 (3): 212-221. Doi: 10.7226/jtfm.26.3.212

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>