Abstract. Yousif RA, Choudhary MI, Ahmed S, Ahmed Q. 2021. Review: Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and other aquatic organisms from Karachi Coast, Pakistan. Nusantara Bioscience 13: 74-85. Heavy metals are being utilized in a variety of ways in industries, agriculture, food processing and household in many forms. Metals are unique environmental and industrial pollutants in the sense that they are neither created nor destroyed by human beings but are only transported and transformed into various products. The present study deals with the findings of various investigators on the effect of heavy metals on fish and other aquatic organisms on Karachi coasts of Pakistan. The polluted areas (Rivers and Karachi coasts) receiving effluents from industrial, agricultural, municipal and domestic wastes. The order of abundance of the metals were as fellow; Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > As. Most studies showed that essential metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in aquatic organisms are much high, but the quantities of non-essential metals are found to be less. This review has shown that fish and other aquatic organisms are used as bio-monitoring species in heavy metal pollution. It is suggested that such investigations should be continuous in terms of both human health and determination of metal pollution in aquatic environment.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2000. Toxicological profile for arsenic. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Ahmed Q, Bat L, Mohammad Ali Q. 2012. Heavy metal levels in Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) from Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences.21(1 and 2),13-21.
Ahmed Q, Yousuf F, Sarfraz M, Abu Bakar NK, Balkhour MA, Ashraf MA. 2014a. Seasonal elemental variations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn and conservational management Rastrelliger kanagurta fish from Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan, Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment.12 (3&4), 405-414.
Ahmed Q, Yousuf F, Sarfraz M, Ali QM, Balkhourd M, Safie SZ, Ashraf MA. 2014b. Euthynnus affinis (little tuna): fishery, bionomics, seasonal elemental variations, health risk assessment and conservational management, Frontiers in Life Science, Frontiers in Life Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2014.961617
Ahmed Q, Benzer S. 2015. Heavy metal concentration in dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758) from Karachi Harbour, Pakistan. IJFAS. 2(5):26-29. ISSN: 2347-5129.
Ahmed Q, Bat L. 2015. Mercury (Hg) levels in Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) from Karachi fish harbour and its risk assessment, Journal of fisheries sciences.com. 9(1)356-360. https://doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.201444
Ahmed Q, Bat L,Yousuf F. 2015. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tissues of Long Tail Tuna from Karachi Fish Harbour, Pakistan. Aquatic Science and Technology. 2015a; ISSN 2168-9148. Vol. 3, No. 1. https://doi.org/10.5296/ast.v3i1.6814
Ahmed Q, Bat L, Yousuf F, Ali QM, Nazim K. 2015b. Accumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) in Tissues of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Family-Scombridae) Fish Marketed by Karachi Fish Harbor, Open Biological Sciences Journal. 1(20-28). https://doi.org/10.2174/2352633501501010020
Ahmed Q, Bat L. 2016. Levels and Health Risk Assessments of Cd and Pb in Pomadasys maculatus Marketed by Karachi Fish Harbor, Pakistan. Ilmu Kelautan June; 21(2):53-58. https://doi.org/10.14710/ik.ijms.21.2.53-58
Ahmed Q, Bat L,Yousuf F, Ar?c? E. 2016. Heavy metals in Acanthopagrus arabicus Iwatsuki, 2013 from Karachi Coasts, Pakistan and potential risk of human health. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 4(1): 203-208
Ahmed Q, Benzer S, Yousuf F. 2016b. Distribution of heavy metals in different tissues of Indian mackerel from Karachi fish harbour, Karachi, Pakistan, Indian J. Anim. Res. 50 (5), 759-763. https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.11423
Ahmed Q, Bat L. 2017. Heavy metal levels in different sizes and tissues of Drepane longimana (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) from Arabian Sea. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 5(12): 505-509. https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.5.2017J7-148
Ahmed Q, Ali QM, Bat L, Ghory FS. 2017a. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Red, Brown and Green Algae Collected from the Karachi Coast of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences. 26(1&2), 57-65, 2017.
Ahmed Q, Ali M. Q, Bat L.2017b. Assessment of heavy metals concentration in holothurians, sediments and water samples from coastal areas of Pakistan (Northern Arabian Sea). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 5(5):191-201. https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.5.2017J7-56
Ahmed Q, Bat L,Yousuf F. 2017c. Contamination of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758) from Karachi fish harbor and potential risks to human health, International Journal of Marine Science, national Journal of Marine Science. (79):7687. https://doi.org/10.5296/ast.v3i1.681410.5376/ijms.2017.07.0009
Ahmed Q, Benzer S, Ali QM. 2018a. Heavy Metal Concentration in Largehead Hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus Linneaus, 1758) and Savalai Hairtail (Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier, 1829)) Obtained from Karachi Fish Harbour, Pakistan. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2418-1
Ahmed Q, Bat L, Ali QM. 2018b. Analysis of Mercury (Hg) in Four Holothurians Species (Phylum Echinodermata) From Karachi Coast Northern Arabian Sea. Aquatic Research. 1(2) 55-63. https://doi.org/10.3153/AR18007
Ahmed Q, Bat L, Öztekin A, Mohammad Ali Q. 2018c. A Review on Studies of Heavy Metal Determination in Mackerel and Tuna (Family-Scombridae) Fishes. J. Anatolian Env. and Anim. Sciences. 3(3), 104-120.
Ahmed Q, Bat L, Ali M Q. 2019. Determination of Mercury (Hg) in two Sea Cucumber species Ohshimella ehrenbergii (Selenka, 1868) and Stolus buccalis (Stimpson, 1855) from The Karachi Coast. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences. 28(1), 55-62.
Akoto O, Bismark Eshun F, Darko G, Adei E. 2014. Concentrations and Health Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals in Fish from the Fosu Lagoon. Int. J. Environ. Res. 8(2): 403-410.
Al-Busaidi M, Yesudhason P, Al-Mughairi S, Al-Rahbi WA, Al-Harthy K, Al-Mazrooei N. 2011. Chemosphere Toxic Metals in Commercial Marine Fish in Oman with Reference to National and International Standards. Chemosphere. 85(1): 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.05.057
Alinnor I, Obiji I. 2010. Assessment of trace metal composition in fish samples from Nworie River. Pakistan J Nutr. 9(1):81–85. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2010.81.85
Anderson J, Fitzgerald C. Iron: An Essential Nutrient Review. [Online]. From: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09356.html . 2010 [Acessed on January 2020].
Angelova M, Asenova S, Nedkova V, Koleva-Kolarova R. 2011. Copper in the Human Organism. Trakia Journal of Sciences. 9(1): 88-98.
Atafar Z, Mesdaghinia A, Nouri J, Homaee M, Yunesian M, Ahmadimoghaddam M, Mahvi, AH. 2010. Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environ. Monit. Assess. 160(1–4), 83–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661–008–0659–x
Attri S, Sharma N, Jahagirdar S, Thapa BR, Prasad R. 2006. Erythrocyte Metabolism and Antioxidant Status of Patients with Wilson Disease with Hemolytic Anemia. Pediatric Research. 59(4):593-597. https://doi.org/10.1203/01.pdr.0000203098.77573.39
Balfour S, Badrie N, Yen IC, Chatergoon L. 2012. Seasonal influence and heavy metal analysis in marine shrimp (Penaeus spp.) sold in Trinidad, Westindies. Journal of Food Research. 1(1): 193-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v1n1p193
Baloch AB, Bat L, Ali QM, Ahmed Q. 2018. Concentration of Heavy Metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb And Cd) in Otolithes Ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) From Damb Fish Landing Centre at Sonmiani, Makran Coast, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences. 27(2), 111-119, 2018.
Barceloux DG. 1999. Nickel. Clin. Toxicol. 37: 239. https://doi.org/10.1081/CLT-100102423
Bryan G, Langston W. 1992. Bioavailability, accumulation and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to United Kingdom estuaries: a review. Environ Pollut. 76(2):89–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(92)90099-V
Burger J, Stern AH, Dixon C, Jeitner C, Shukla S, Burke S, Gochfeld M. 2004. Fish availability in supermarkets and fish markets in New Jersey. Sci Total Environ. 333(1-3):89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.05.016
Burger J, Gochfeld M. 2011. Mercury and Selenium Levels in 19 Species of Saltwater fish from New Jersey as a Function of Species, Size, and Season. Sci. Total Environ. 409: 1418-1429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.034
Castro-gonzález MI, Méndez-armenta M. 2008. Heavy Metals : Implications Associated to Fish Consumption. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 26: 263-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2008.06.001
CDGK. 2012. City district Government of Karachi. www.karachicity.gov.pk.
Changfeng L, Kehai Z, Wenqiang Q, Changjiu T, Miao Q, Xiaoming Y, Wenbing H. 2019. A Review on Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil: Effects, Sources, and Remediation Techniques, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2019.1592108
Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DSS. 2008. Assessing risk of Heavy Metals from Consuming Food Grown on Sewage Irrigated Soils and Food Chain Transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 69(3): 513-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.04.013
Chasapis CT, Loutsidou A, Spiliopoulou CA, Stefanidou ME. 2012. Zinc and Human Health: An Update. Arch Toxicol. 86: 521-534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-011-0775-1
Chen ZF, Zhao Y, Fan LD, Xing LT, Yang YJ. 2015. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Its phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soils. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 95, 784–789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128–015–1662–x
Cid BP, Boia C, Pombo L, Rebelo E. 2001. Determination of Trace Metals in Fish Species of the Ria De Aveiro (Portugal) by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 75(1): 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00184-4
Cohen T, Que Hee SS, Ambrose RF. 2001. Trace metals in fish and invertebrates of three California coastal Wetlands, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42:224–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00146-6
Devesa V, Velez D, Montoro R. 2008. Effect of Thermal Treatments on Arsenic Species Contents in Food. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.021
Emami Khansari F, Ghazi-Khansari M, Abdollahi M. 2005. Heavy Metals Content of Canned Tuna Fish. Food Chemistry. 93: 293-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.025
Erdman JW, Macdonald I A, Zeisel SH. 2012. (Eds.). Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th edition. A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication.
European Community EC. 2005. Commission Regulation No 78/2005 (pp. L16/43–L16/45). Official Journal of the European Union. 20.1.2005.
European Union EU. 2001. Commission Regulation as regards heavy metals, Directive, 2001/22/EC, No: 466.
European Union EU. 2006. Setting Maximum Levels for Certain Contaminants in Foodstuffs, Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006; OJ L 364, 20.12.2006. 5.
Failla ML, Johnson MA, Prohaska JR. 2001. Copper. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Washington D.C.: Life Sciences Institute Press.373-383.
FAO. 1983. Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products. FAO Fish Circ.764:5–100.
Fernandes C, Fontaínhas-Fernandes A, Cabral D, Salgado MA. 2008. Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Tissues of Liza Saliens from Esmoriz-Paramos Lagoon, Portugal. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 136(1-3): 267-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9682-6
Forti E, Salovaara S, Cetin Y, Bulgheroni A, Tessadri R, Jennings P, Prieto P. 2011. In Vitro Evaluation of the Toxicity Induced by Nickel Soluble and Particulate Forms in Human Airway Epithelial Cells. Toxicology in Vitro. 25(2): 454-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2010.11.013
García-lestón J, Mendez J, Pásaro E, Laffon B. 2010. Author’s Personal Copy Genotoxic Effects of Lead: An Updated Review. Environment International. 36: 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.011
Gokoglu N,Yerlikaya P, Gokoglu M. 2008. Mini – Review: Trace elements in edible tissues of three shrimp species (Penaeus semisulcatus, Parapenaeus longirostris and Paleomon serratus). Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 88: 175-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3086
Goldhaber SB. 2003. Trace Element Risk Assessment: Essentiality Vs Toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 38:232-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S02732300(02)00020-X
Gu Y, Kodama H, Sato E, Mochizuki D, Yanagawa Y, Takayanagi M, Lee C. 2002. Prenatal Diagnosis of Menkes Disease by Genetic Analysis and Copper Measurement. Brain & Development. 24: 715-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00093-1
Hao Y, Chen L, Zhang X, Zhang D, Zhang X, Yu Y, Fu J. 2013. Trace Elements in Fish from Taihu Lake, China : Levels, Associated Risks, And Trophic Transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 90: 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.12.012
Ikem A, Egilla J. 2008. Trace Element Content of Fish Feed and Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus) from Aquaculture and Wild Source In Missouri. Food Chemistry. 110(2): 301-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.003
Jibiri N, Adewuyi G. 2008. Radionuclide contents and physicochemical characterization of solid waste and effluent samples of some selected industries in the city of Lagos, Nigeria. Radioprotection. 43(2):203–212. https://doi.org/10.1051/radiopro:2007053
Kamal T, Tanoli MAK, Mumtaz M, Ali N, Ayub S. 2015a. Bioconcentration Potential Studies of Heavy Metals in Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (Jaira or Red Tail Shrimp) along the Littoral States of Karachi City. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 11, 611-618. http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2015.11.82
Kamal T, Tanoli MAK, Mumtaz M, Ali N, Ayub S. 2015b. Analysis of Essential Elements in Commercially Important Lobster Species Collected from Coastal Areas of Karachi City, Pakistan. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences. 5, 103-113. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.02.2
Kazi TG, Wadhwa SK, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Kandhro GA, Baig JA, Arain MB. 2010. Interaction of Cadmium and Zinc in Biological Samples of Smokers and Chewing Tobacco Female Mouth Cancer Patients. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 176: 985-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.139
Kennedy CJ. 2011. The toxicology of metals in fishes, in Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology: From Genome to Environment. In: Farrell, A.P. (Ed.), 3. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA. pp. 2061–2068.
Khan I, Ghani A, Rehman AU, Awan SA, Noreen A, Khalid I. 2016. Comparative analysis of heavy metal profile of Brassica campestris (L.) and Raphanus sativus (L.) irrigated with municipal waste water of sargodha city. J. Clin. Toxicol. 6, 1–4. https://doi:10.4172/2161-0495.1000307
Khattak MI, Khattak MI, Mohibullah M. 2012. Study of heavy metal pollution in mangrove sediments reference to marine environment along the coastal areas of Pakistan. Pakistan J. Bot. 44(1), 373-378.
King JC. 2000. Determinants of Maternal Zinc Status During Pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 71: 1334-1343. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.5.1334s
Koyashiki GAK, Paoliello MMB, Tchounwou PB. 2010. Lead Levels in Human Milk and Children’s Health risk: A Systematic Review. Rev Environ Health. 25(3): 243–253.
Krishna, P, Jyothirmayi V, Madhusudhana Rao K. 2014. Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation Through Fish Consumption, from Machilipatnam Coast, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health. 1(5): 121-125.
Lambert M, Leven B, Green R. 2000. New methods of cleaning up heavy metal in soils and water. Environmental science and technology briefs for citizens. Manhattan (KS): Kansas State University.
Langston W. 1990. Toxic effects of metals and incidence of marine ecosystems. In: Furness RW, Rainbow PS, editors. Heavy metals in the marine environment. New York: CRC Press. p. 256.
Liu P, Wang C, Song X, Wu Y. 2010. International Journal of Hygiene and Dietary Intake of Lead and Cadmium by Children and Adults– Result Calculated From Dietary Recall and Available Lead/Cadmium Level in Food in Comparison to Result from Food Duplicate Diet Method. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 450-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.07.002
Lone MI, He ZL, Stoffella PJ, Yang XE. 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ.–Sci. B (Biomed. Biotechnol.). 9 (210–220). https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0710633
MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food). 2000. Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1997. In Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 52. Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK.
Messner B, Knoflach M, Seubert A, Ritsch A, Pfaller K, Henderson B, Bernhard D. 2009. Cadmium is a Novel and Independent Risk Factor for Early Atherosclerosis Mechanisms and in Vivo Relevance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1392-1398. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.190082
Mitra A, Barua P, Zaman S, Banerjee K. 2012. Analysis of trace metals in commercially important crustaceans collected from UNESCO protected world heritage site of Indian Sundarbans. Turkish Journel of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 12: 53-66. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v12_1_07
Mukhtar I, Hannan A. 2012. Constrains on mangrove forests and conservation projects in Pakistan. J Coast Conserv. 16, 51-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-011-0168-x
Muradoglu F, Gundogdu M, Ercisli S, Encu T, Balta F, Jaafar HZE, Zia–Ul–Haq M. 2015. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry. Biol. Res. 48, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/S40659–015–0001–3
Oikari A, Nakari T. 1982. Kraft pulp mill effluent components cause liver dysfunction in trout. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 28(3):266–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01608505
Oikari A, Soivio A. 1976. Physiological condition of fish exposed to water containing pulp and paper industry wastes and sewage [Europe]. FAO, Rome (Italy). Fisheries Dept. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission. Symposium on Biological Monitoring, Helsinki (Finland), 7 June 1976.
Ogunlade MO, Agbeniyi SO (2011) Impact of pesticides use on heavy metals pollution in cocoa soils of Cross-River State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Agri. Res. 6, 3725–3728.
Palaniappan PR, Karthikeyan S. 2009. Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Chromium in the Selected Organs and Whole Body Tissues of Freshwater Fish Cirrhinus Mrigala Individually and in Binary Solutions with Nickel. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 21(2): 229-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62256-1
Perl DP, Olanow CW. 2007. The Neuropathology of Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 66: 675-682. https://doi.org/10.1097/nen.0b013e31812503cf
Rahman M, Islam M. 2010. Adsorption of Cd (II) ions from Synthetic Waste Water Using Maple Sawdust Adsorption of Cd (II) Ions from Synthetic Waste Water Using Maple Sawdust. Energy Sources. Part A. 32: 222-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030802459297
Rahman MS, Molla AH, Saha N, Rahman A. 2012. Study on Heavy Metals Levels and Its Risk Assessment in Some Edible Fishes from Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food Chemistry. 134(4): 1847-1854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.099
Raja P, Veerasingam S, Suresh G, Marichamy G, Venkatachalapathy R. 2009. Heavy metals concentration in four commercially valuable marine edible fish species from Parangipettai Coast, South East Coast of India. Int J Anim Vet Adv. 1(1):10–14.
Rajeshkumar S, Li X. 2018. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Toxicol Rep. 2018;5:288–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.01.007
Rashed M. 2001. Monitoring of environmental heavy metals in fish from Nasser Lake. Environ Int. 27(1): 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(01)00050-2
Roussel A, Andriollo-sanchez M, Ferry M, Bryden NA, Anderson RA. 2007. Food Chromium Content, Dietary Chromium Intake and Related Biological Variables in French Free-Living Elderly. British Journal of Nutrition. 98: 326-331. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711450770168X
Sadiq R, Husain T, Bose N, Veitch B. 2003. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Sediment Pore Water Due to Offshore Discharges: An Ecological Risk Assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software. 18: 451-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-8152(03)00010-0
Saha N, Zaman MR. 2013. Evaluation of Possible Health Risks of Heavy Metals by Consumption of Foodstuffs Available in the Central Market of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess. 185: 3867-3878. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2835-2
Saher NU, Siddiqui AS. 2017. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination in Mangrove Sediments and their Allied Fiddler Crab Species (Austruca sindensis (Alcock, 1900) from Hawks Bay, Karachi, Pakistan. Int. J. Biol. Biotech. 14 (3): 411-417, 2017.
Saher NU, Kanwal N. 2018. Some biomonitoring studies of heavy metals in commercial species of crustacean along Karachi coast, Pakistan. Int. J. Biol. Biotech. 15 (2): 269-275.
Salnikow K, Kasprzak KS. 2005. Ascorbate Depletion: A Critical Step in Nickel Carcinogenesis? Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(5): 577–584. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7605
Sarkar B. 1999. Treatment of Wilson and Menkes Diseases. Chem. Rev. 99: 2535-2544.
Sary AA, Mohammadi M. 2011. Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Fish from Freshwater. Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology. 6(4): 404-411.
Scherz H, Kirchhoff E. 2006. Trace Elements In Foods: Zinc Contents of Raw Foods-A Comparison of Data Originating from Different Geographical Regions of the World. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19: 420-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.004
Schnaas L, Rothenberg SJ, Flores M, Martinez S, Hernandez C, Osorio E, Perroni E. 2006. Reduced Intellectual Development in Children with Prenatal Lead Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives. 114(5): 791-797. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8552
Sfakianakis DG, Renieri E, Kentouri M, Tsatsakis AM. 2015. Effect of heavy metals on fish larvae deformities: Areview Environmental Research. 137:246–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.12.014
Siddiqui AS, Saher NU. 2015. Heavy metals distribution in sediments and their transfer rate to benthic fauna in mangrove area near hawks bay karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences. 24(1&2), 09-17..
Sivaperumal P, Sankar TV, Nair PGV. 2007. Food Chemistry Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish, Shellfish and Fish Products from Internal Markets of India Vis-A-Vis International Standards. Food Chemistry. 102: 612-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.041
Song Y, Elias V, Loban A, Scrimgeour AG, Ho E. 2010. Marginal Zinc Deficiency Increases Oxidative DNA Damage in the Prostate After Chronic Exercise. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 48: 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.10.030
Stern BR, Solioz M, Krewski D, Aggett P, Aw T-C, Baker S, Starr T. 2007. Copper and Human Health: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Strategies for Modeling Dose-Response Relationships. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 10: 157-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937400600755911
Stipanuk MH, Caudill MA. 2012. Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. 3rd Edition. Elsevier Saundre Publishing, Philadelphia.
Sulieman HMA, Suliman EM. 2019. Appraisal of heavy metal levels in some marine organisms gathered from the Vellar and Uppanar estuaries Southeast Coast of Indian Ocean, Journal of Taibah University for Science. 13:1, 338-343. https://doi.org/10.1080/16583655.2019.1576276
Sun WH, Jiang YX, Li X. 2013. Research of the evaluation on heavy-metal pollution in rice by sewage irrigation. Appl. Mech. Mater. 295–298, 1594–1599. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.295–298.1594
Thomas LDK, Hodgson S, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Jarup L. 2009. Early Kidney Damage in a Population Exposed to Cadmium and Other Heavy Metals. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(2): 181-184. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.11641
Tulasi G, Rao KJ. 2014. Essentiality of Chromium for Human Health and Dietary Nutrition. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2(1): 107-108.
Tüzen M. 2003. Determination of heavy metals in fish samples of the middle Black Sea (Turkey) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem. 80(1):119–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00264-9
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2004. Toxicological Profile for Copper (Public Hea., pp. 1–314). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Umar A, Umar R, Ahmad MS. 2001. Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Frame Works of Regional Aquter System in Kali-Ganga Sub-Basin. India. Envir. Geol. 40(4-5): 602611.
Uriu-adams JY, Keen CL. 2010. Zinc and Reproduction : Effects of Zinc Deficiency on Prenatal and Early Postnatal Development. Birth Defects Research (Part B). 89: 313-325. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.20264
Uysal K, Emre Y, Köse E. 2008. The Determination of Heavy Metal Accumulation Ratios in Muscle, Skin and Gills of Some Migratory Fish Species by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in Beymelek Lagoon (Antalya/Turkey). Microchemical Journal. 90(1): 67-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2008.03.005
Van Hassel JH, Ney JJ, Garling DL. 1980. Heavy metals in a stream ecosystem at sites near highways. Transactions of American Fisheries Society. 109:636-643.
Vettori MV, Alinovi R, Belletti S, Goldoni M, Franchini I, Multi A. 2003. In Vitro Model for the Evaluation of the Neurotoxicity of Methyl Mercury. Current State of Knowledge. Med. Lav. 94-183.
World Health Organization (WHO). 1989. Heavy metals environmental aspects. Environmental Health Criteria. No. 85, Geneva.
Xue Z, Liu S, Liu Y, Yan YL. 2012. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals for Edible Parts of Vegetables Grown In Sewage-Irrigated Soils in Suburbs of Baoding City, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 184(6): 3503-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2204-6
Yasmeen K, Mirza AM, Khan NA, Kausar N, Atta?ur Rehman and Hanif M. 2016. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea. SpringerPlus. 5:859. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2436-6
Yousif RA, Masyamsir, Dhahiyat, Sunarto, Zahidah . 2016. Assessment the Levels of Heavy Metals and Water Quality in Cikuda River, Indonesia, Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology g.j.b.b., vol.5 (2) 240-244. issn 2278 – 9103.
Yousuf F, Ahmed Q. 2010. Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) content in Thunnus tonggol (Family-Scombridae) from Karachi coast. Karachi University Journal of Science. 38, 5-9.
Yousuf F, Ahmed Q. 2011. Concentration of heavy metals in liver and muscles of fish, Rastrelliger kanagurta, from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 8 (543-550).
Zheng G, Tian L, Liang Y, Broberg K, Lei L, Guo W, Nilsson J, Bergdahl IA, Skerfving S, Jin T. 2011. ?-Aminolevulinic acid Dehydratase Genotype Predicts Toxic Effects of Lead on Workers’ Peripheral Nervous System. Neurotoxicology. 32: 374-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2011.03.006