Utilization of mangrove plants as a source of Malaria medicine in North Maluku Province, Indonesia




Abstract. Tamalene MN, Sen UK, Bhakat RK, Vianti E, Bahtiar, Suparman. 2021. Utilization of mangrove plant species as medicine against malaria in North Maluku Province, Indonesia. Asian J Ethnobiol 4: 86-92. Local communities still use plants as a source of medicine since immemorial time. Most of the local communities mix the plants to treat various diseases including malaria. Almost half of 250 million of Indonesia’s population lives in malaria-endemic areas and about 15 million people look for clinical malaria treatment every year. This research aims to survey mangrove plants as a source of Malaria medicine utilized by six ethnic groups of North Maluku Province, Indonesia. Data were collected from 98 informants on the local names of the used species, the parts as well as the "modes of preparation". The Fidelity Level serves to find out various outcomes. Six mangrove plant species Lumnitzera littorea, Rhizophora mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia alba, Xylocarpus granatum and Xylocarpus moluccensis are used as malaria medicine. The traditional treatment that used mangrove rinds, barks, fruits and flowers was one of the popular methods practiced in the community social life. The mangrove plants have cultural, ecological and economic values; Authors suggest that further investigations be undertaken on the pharmacological properties and level of toxicity of potion made using mangrove plant species. This will lead to stating scientific information related to the safety of consuming traditional medicines.


A’Yunin Al-Isyrofi AQ, Widati S, Hargono R. 2021. Requirement specification to develop digital health promotion platform for millenial and post-millenial generations in Surabaya Indonesia. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 15(2): 2022-2031.
Asase A, Asafo-Agyei T. 2011. Plants used for the treatment of malaria in communities around the Bobiri forest reserve in Ghana. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 17(2): 85-106.
Bandaranayake WM. 1998. Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2(3): 133-148.
Belayneh A, Asfaw Z, Demissew S, Bussa NF. 2012. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine 8(1): 1-11.
da Silva MRM, Ricci-Júnior E. 2020. An approach to natural insect repellent formulations: from basic research to technological development. Acta Trop 212, 105419. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105419.
Dale P, Sipe N, Anto S, Hutajulu B, Ndoen E, Papayungan M, Saikhu A, Prabowa YT. 2005. Malaria in Indonesia: a summary of recent research into its environmental relationships. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36(1): 1-13.
Datta D, Chattopadhyay RN, Guha P. 2012. Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability. J Environ Manage 107: 84-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.013.
del Prado GRL, García CH, Cea LM, Espinilla VF, Moreno MFM, Márquez AD, Polo MJP, García IA. 2014. Malaria in developing countries. J Infect Dev Ctries 8(1): 001-004.
Elyazar IR, Gething PW, Patil AP, Rogayah H, Sariwati E, Palupi NW, Tarmizi SN, Kusriastuti R, Baird JK, Hay SI. 2012. Plasmodium vivax malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010. PLoS One 7(5): e37325. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037325.
Gething PW, Elyazar IR, Moyes CL, Smith DL, Battle KE, Guerra CA, Patil AP, Tatem AJ, Howes RE, Myers MF, George DB. 2012. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(9): e1814. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001814.
Herdiana H, Cotter C, Coutrier FN, Zarlinda I, Zelman BW, Tirta YK, Hsiang MS. 2016. Malaria risk factor assessment using active and passive surveillance data from Aceh Besar, Indonesia, a low endemic, malaria elimination setting with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J 15(1): 468. DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1523-z.
Hoffman B, Gallaher T. 2007. Importance indices in ethnobotany. Ethnobot Res Appl 5: 201-218.
Husain F, Wahidah BF, Prasetyo KB, Massholeh MA. 2019. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants among sellers of Jamu Gendong in Wonolopo, Indonesia. First International Conference on Advances in Education, Humanities, and Language, Malang, Indonesia, 23-24 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-3-2019.2284999.
Kasmawati H, Ruslin IS, Yamin MD, Elafita WO. 2019. Ethnomedicine Studies of Traditional Medicinal Plants of the Muna Tribe in the Village of Bungi Southeast Sulawesi Province of Indonesia. Int J Sci Res 8(11): 1882-1887.
Kovacs JM. 1999. Assessing mangrove use at the local scale. Landsc Urban Plan 43(4): 201-208.
Lakshmi V, Srivastava S, Mishra SK, Srivastava MN, Srivastava K, Puri SK. 2012. Antimalarial activity in Xylocarpus granatum J. Koenig. Nat Prod Res 26(11): 1012-1015.
Lalitha P, Sachithanandam V, Swarnakumar NS, Sridhar R. 2019. Review on anti-inflammatory properties of mangrove plants. Asian J Pharm Res 9(4): 273-288.
Manning L, Laman M, Law I, Bona C, Aipit S, Teine D, Warrell J, Rosanas-Urgell A, Lin E, Kiniboro B, Vince J. 2011. Features and prognosis of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed Plasmodium species in Papua New Guinean children. PloS One 6(12): e29203. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029203.
Martin GJ. 2014. Ethnobotany: A methods manual. UK: Springer.
McClatchey W, Gollin LX. 2005. An ethnobotany research training workshop in Madagascar. Ethnobot Res Appl 3: 309-328.
Medinaceli A. 2018. Taking an Early Step in Ethnobiological Research: a Proposal for Obtaining Prior and Informed Consent from Indigenous Peoples. Ethnobiology Letters 9(1):76-85.
Ngarivhume T, Van’t Klooster CI, de Jong JT, Van der Westhuizen JH. 2015. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe. J Ethnopharmacol 59: 224-237.
Qu SQ, Dumay J. 2011. The qualitative research interview. Qual Res Account Manag 8(3): 238-264.
Sen UK, Bhakat RK. 2020. Assessment of Psammophytic Medicinal Plant Diversity Used among the Rural Communities in Coastal East Midnapore, West Bengal, India. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 26(3): 219-247.
Senthilraja P, Sunil KS, Kathiresan K. 2012. Potential of mangrove derived compounds against dihydrofolate reductase: An in silico docking study. J Comput Biol Bioinform Res 4: 23-27.
Sukardjo S. 2016. The South China Sea: An impact to Indonesia mangrove at the human perspective on ecosystem, function, services and benefit. Malaysian J Sci 35(2): 73-106.
Suwonkerd W, Ritthison W, Ngo CT, Tainchum K, Bangs MJ, Chareonviriyaphap T. 2013. Vector biology and malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. In: Manguin S. Anopheles mosquitoes-New insights into malaria vectors. London: Intech Open Publishers, 273-326.
Tamalene MN, Bahtiar S, Nadra WS, Syahdar SA, Vianti E. 2019. Rorano Malaria: Utilization and preservation of malaria-based medicinal plants local culture. CV. Human Scholar. 1-143.
WCVP. 2021. World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ 29 June, 2021.
WHO. 2012. Summary of the World Malaria Report 2012. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/en/index.html.