Abstract. Humnessa T, Gebretsadik W, Negasa A. 2022. Identification and characterization of traditional agroforestry practices and their socioeconomic roles in Dendi District, Central Ethiopia. Asian J For 6: 83-89. This study was conducted in the Dendi District of Central Ethiopia in three kebele (smallest administration units in Ethiopia) to identify and characterize the existing traditional agroforestry practices and their contribution to household livelihood. Informal surveys were conducted through key informant interviews and physical observations, while formal surveys were conducted using structured questionnaires. Home gardens, scattered trees on cropland, scattered woody species on grazing land, live fencing, and rarely woodlots were traditional agroforestry practices identified in the area. Home gardens were the prevailing traditional agroforestry practices in the study area. Fifty-seven (57) perennial woody species and twenty-two (22) annual crops (including vegetables and crops) in the home garden, twelve (12) species of scattered trees on cropland, twenty-eight (28) woody species on grazing land, twenty-four (24) woody species on the live fence, and two (2) woody species on woodlots were planted and managed in the study area for several purposes. Except for woodlots, most woody species in traditional agroforestry were grouped under the Fabaceae family. Furthermore, most associated annual crops in home garden agroforestry were categorized under the Solanaceae family. Different tree management practices, such as branch pruning, coppicing, pollarding, and thinning, were undertaken by agroforestry practitioners to reduce negative interaction among components and maximize the overall products of the system.