Review: Floral resources diversity of honeybees in important types of vegetation of Ethiopia




Abstract. Addi A, Bareke T. 2019. Review: Floral resources diversity of honeybees in important types of vegetation of Ethiopia. Asian J For 3: 64-68. The high biodiversity of Ethiopia is attributed to its wide ranges of altitude and great geo-morphological diversity. This has resulted in the existence of the region has diverse floral resources of which majority of them are honeybee flora. In this paper bee resources identification and reviewing bee forages were made to determine types of bee plants, floral diversity, flowering period and food source offered by the plants. Moreover, pollen analysis of honey from different regions of Ethiopia was analyzed for determination of major and minor honey source plants. Accordingly, over 1500 species of indigenous and exotic of plants belongs to 105 bee plant families were identified. The growth form analysis of bee forage comprising 41.6% herb, 28.7% shrubs, 21.7% trees, and 8% climbers. The majority of bee plant species flowered from September to November and April to May resulting in two major honey flow periods in the country. Melissopalynological analysis of the honey samples indicated that Schefflera abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, Syzygium guineense, Vernonia amygdalina and Coffea arabica contributed for 80%, 64%, 86%, 77% and 75% of the total pollen count respectively from southwest and southeastern part of the country while Becium grandiflorum, Hypoestes forskaolii, Leucas abyssinica and Acacia spp. an accounting for 71%, 75.1%, 62%, and 70.5%, respectively from northern Ethiopia. On the other hand, Eucalyptus globulus and Guizotia scabra honey were from central Ethiopia, contributing to 94% of the pollen frequency. From this information, Ethiopia has rich bee forage diversity different vegetation types however, further collection and documentation of bee flora are required in unaddressed areas of the country. Thus in situ conservation, by ecological restoration, and raising and planting of seedlings of bee forages should be promoted for sustainable honey production.