Lipid profiles, hematological parameters and histopathological analysis of CCl4-intoxicated wistar albino rats treated with n-butanol extract of Ficus glumosa leaves




Abstract. Abu MS, Yakubu OE, Onuche JI, Okpe O. 2022. Lipid profiles, hematological parameters and histopathological analysis of CCl4-intoxicated wistar albino rats treated with n-butanol extract of Ficus glumosa leaves. Cell Biol Dev 6: 6-12. This research critically assessed the effect of n-butanol fraction of methanol extract of Ficus glumosa Delile leaves on serum lipid profile, hematological parameters and some organs architecture of experimental albino rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Crude methanol extract was re-dissolved in 300 mL of distilled water and repeatedly partitioned in a separating funnel with 400 mL of n-hexane with vigorous shaking. This process was repeated using other solvents (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and distilled water) and the n-butanol was selected on the basis of antioxidant potency. A total of 35 albino rats were used. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. Lipid profile, hematological indices and histopathological analysis were carried out. With the administration of extract, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in the Carbon tetrachloride-induced but treated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reduced compared to the normal levels, 1.84±0.27 mmol/L and 0.54±0.11 mmol/L, respectively, whereas high-density lipoprotein was relatively increased compared to the normal level, 1.44±0.43 mg/dL. Similarly, packed cell volume, hemoglobin and white blood cell levels were significantly (P<0.05) reversed to near normal in the extract-treated rats. On the other hand, the histopathological examinations of a liver section of the normal control group showed normal hepatocellular architecture with distinct hepatic cells with a well-conserved central vein. Carbo tetrachloride-induced control group liver showed intense hepatic necrosis with vascular congestion, kupffer cells hyperplasia, vacuolation and degeneration of normal hepatic cells (hepatic necrosis). However, the induced but treated groups almost normalized the hepatic cells (moderate hepatic necrosis). The findings showed that, the n-butanol fraction of F. glumosa was able to reverse the deleterious effects of CCl4 on lipid profile and hematological parameters with the restoration of the architectural integrities of the liver and kidney of the treated rats.


Abu MS, Yakubu OE, Boyi RN, Mayel MH, Shaibu CO. 2020. Phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity and free radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of F. glumosa leaves. Anchor Univ J Sci Tech 1 (1): 16-22.
Abu MS, Yakubu OE, Imo C, Yohanna RE, Okpe O, Mashi RL. 2021. Effect of n-butanol extract of F. glumosa leaves on ccl4-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Open Sci J Biosci Bioeng 8 (1): 12-18.
Adejo GO, Atawodi SE, Ameh DA, Ibrahim S. 2014. Anti-peroxidative, protective and ameliorative properties of methanol extract of all parts of Morinda lucida (Benth) in CCl4-induced liver injury. Nat Prod Chem Res 1: 1-7. DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102541.
Aigbokhan EI. 2014. Annotated checklist of vascular plants of Southern Nigeria: A quick reference guide to vascular plants of Southern Nigeria: A systematic approach. University of Benin Press, Benin City, Nigeria.
Akram E, Pejman M, Masoud ET, Ali HR, Shahabaldin S. 2010. Hepatoprotective effect of pantothenic acids on carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats. Exp Clin Sci J 11: 748-759. DOI: 10.17877/DE290R-5373.
Alexander RR, Grifiths JM. (1993a and 1993b). Hemoglobin determination by the cyanmethemoglobin method. In Alexander RR, Grifiths JM (eds). Basic biochemical method. John Wiley and sons, New York.
Ankur R, Nidhi D, Seema R, Amarjeet D, Ashok K. 2012. Hyperlipidaemia- a deadly pathological condition. Intl J Curr Pharm Res 4 (2): 15-18.
Bassam ARH. 2013. Overview on hyperlipidaemia. J Chromatogr Sep Tech 4 (3): 1000e113. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7064.1000e113.
Braamskamp MJ, Wijburg FA, Wiegman A. 2012. Drug therapy of hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescence. Drugs 72: 759-772. DOI: 10.2165/11632810-000000000-00000.
Brouwers MC, VanGreevenbroek MM, Stehouwer CD, de Graaf J, Stalenhoef AF. 2012. The genetic of familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Nat Rev Endocrinol 8 352-362. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2012.15.
Cheesbrough M. 2000. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. (Part 2). Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.
Dawood A, Muhammad F, Sheeraz MA, Habiba N, Hina G, Saira A. 2014. Protective action of Taraxcum officinale on CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Afr J Pharm Pharm 8 (30): 775-780. DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2013.3728.
Gebhardt R, Beck H. 1996. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte culture. Lipids 31: 1269-1276. DOI: 10.1007/BF02587912.
Gosh RK, Gosh SM. 2012. Current status of CEPT inhibitors in in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. Curr Clin Pharm 7: 102-110. DOI: 10.2174/157488412800228884.
Guo F, Huang C, Liao X, Wang Y, He Y, Feng R. 2011. Beneficial effect of magniferin on hyperlipidaemia in high-fat-fed hamsters. Mol Nut Food Res 55: 1809-1818. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201100392.
Khalid GA, Fathia AM, Mosaad AA. 2013. The protective effects of whey protein and spirulina against CCl4-induced erythrocyte damage in rats. J Appli Sci Res 9 (3): 2063-2071.
Knockaert L, Berson A, Ribault C, Prost P-E, Fautrel A, Pajaud J, Lepage S, Lucas-Clerc C, Bégué J-M, Fromenty B, Robin M-A. 2012. Carbon tetrachloride mediated lipid peroxidation induces early mitochondrial alteration in mouse liver. Lab Invest 92: 396-410. DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2011.193.
Kwazo HA, Faruq UZ, Dangoggo SM, Malami BS, Moronkola DO. 2015. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of crude water extract of the stem-bark of Ficus glumosa. Sci Res Essays 10 (5): 177-183. DOI: 10.5897/SRE2013.5764.
Lillie RD. 1965. Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry (3rd). McGraw Hill, New York.
Lughetti L, Bruzzi P, Predieri B. 2010. Evaluation and management of hyperlipidaemia in children and adolescence. Curr Opin Pediatr 22: 485-493. DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833ab869.
Madubuike KG, Yusuf NO, Ibekwe AM. 2015. Hepatoprotective activit of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis, in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatoxicity. Arch Appl Sci Res 7 (5): 45-48.
Maduka HC, Daja A, Okoye Gadaka GA, Abubakar KA, Maduka AA. 2014. Protective role of Moringa oleifera Lam aqueous extract on some excretory products and hematological parameters in acetamophen induced albino rats. J Nutr Health 3 (2): 27-31. DOI: 10.9790/1959-03252731.
Mariam GE, Hassenane MM, Ibrahim MF, Nermeen MS, Abodfetoh MA. 2015. Evaluation of protective and therapeutic role of moringa oleifera leaf extract on CCL4-induced genotoxicity, haematoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. Intl J Pharm Tech Res 7 (2): 392-415.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony A. 2009. Agroforestry databasea: A tree version 4.0, 2009, http//
Paul OA. 2013. Physicochemical properties and rheological behaviour of Ficus glumosa gum in aqueous solution. Afr J Pure Appli Chem 7 (1): 35-43. DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC12.033.
Priskila M, Ariningrum D, Suparyanti ES. 2008. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on reduction of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol ratio in hypercholesterolemic rats (Rattus norvegicus). Biofarmasi 6: 45-51. DOI: 10.13057/biofar/f060203.
Saba AB, Oyagbemi AA, Azeez OI. 2010. Amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and haematotoxicity by aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 25: 139-147.
Sacks FM, Katan M. 2002. Randomised clinical trial on the effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 113: 13S-24S. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9343(01)00987-1.
Siri-tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. 2010. Saturated fats, carbohydrate and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 502-509. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26285.
Stein EA. 1987. Lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. In: Tietz NW (eds). Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
Tsuchiya S, Tsukamoto Y, Taira E, Lamarre J. 2007. Involvement of transforming growth factor-? in the expression of gicerin, a cell adhesion molecule, in the regeneration of hepatocytes. Intl J Mol Med 19 (3): 381-386. DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.19.3.381.
Umar Z, Mohammed A, Tanko Y. 2013. Effects of ethanol leaf extract of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Niger J of Physiol Soc 28: 99-104.
Venkatanarayana G, Sudhakara P, Sivajyothi PI. 2012. Protective effects of curcumin and vitamin e on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp Clin J 11: 641-650.
Yakubu OE, Ojogbane EB, Abu MS, Shaibu CO, Ayegba WE. 2020. Haematinic effects of ethanol extract of Ficus sur leaves on diethylnitrosamine-induced toxicity in wistar rats. J Pharm Toxicol 15 (1): 16-21. DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2020.16.21.