Ethnoveterinary practice of medicinal plants in Chhatradev Rural Municipality, Arghakhanchi District of Western Nepal

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

ALOK DHAKAL
SUSHANK KHANAL
MEENA PANDEY
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3556-6656

Abstract

Abstract. Dhakal A, Khanal S, Pandey M. 2021. Ethnoveterinary practice of medicinal plants in Chhatradev Rural Municipality, Arghakhanchi District of Western Nepal. Nusantara Bioscience 13: 29-40. The use of medicinal plants is a traditional system in treating domestic animals in Nepal. This study was done to investigate and document knowledge about using different plants with medicinal value to cure different animal ailments in Chhatradev Rural Municipality, Arghakhanchi district of western Nepal. A total of 100 elderly people rearing domestic animals and having traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary plants were selected for interview. A semi-structured questionnaire was employed, and interviews were conducted for addressing detailed ethnoveterinary information. The uses of 103 plant species belonging to 56 families were documented for the treatment of 21 animal ailments. Fabaceae was found to be a dominant family with 10 plant species followed by Poaceae (8 species). The most commonly used plant parts were leaf, seed, and fruit. Herbs were dominant with 44 plant species followed by trees (32 species), shrubs (14 species), and climbers (13 species). The wide application of the medicinal plants as the form of paste formulation was observed for 41 plant species, while 25 plant species were used as powder formulation followed by Juice (21 species), raw (20 species), decoction (19 species), infusion (5 species), and roasted formulation (3 species). Oral route was the most common route followed by dermal and ocular. It was found that the informant consensus factor (ICF) values varied from 0.858 to 0.96. A high informant consensus factor was found for ailment of reproductive category (0.96) followed by respiratory (0.957), gastrointestinal (0.949) while the least was in urinary problem category (0.858). The highest citation frequency was found for Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (247) followed by Myristica fragrans Houtt. (111), Sesamum indicum L. (109), Saccharum officinarum L. (107) and Zea mays L. (97). The wide use and rich knowledge of ethnoveterinary practice were found in the study area. This study might be handy to discover useful ethnopharmaceutical agents applicable in the livestock industry. Conservation programs should be done from the government level and study on the use of medicinal plants for treating animal diseases is recommended.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Acharya KP, Acharya M. 2010. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Sardikhola VDC, Kaski, Nepal. J Med Plants Res 4(2): 235–239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1023.4
Acharya R, Marasini D, Acharya DP. 2015. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of domestic cattle in Dhikura village of Arghakhanchi district, Nepal. Adv J Med Pla Res 2(1): 6–16.
Aryal K, Dhimal M, Pandey A, Pandey A, Dhungana R, Khaniya N, Mehta R, Karki K. 2016. Knowledge Diversity and Healing Practices of Traditional Medicine in Nepal, Nepal Health Research Council, Government of Nepal. http://nhrc.gov.np/publication/knowledge-diversity-and-healing-practices-of-traditional-medicine-in-nepal/
Bartha, SG, Quave CL, Balogh L, Papp N. 2015. Ethnoveterinary practices of Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11(1): 1–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0020-8.
Baskota N, Doj Raj K. 2013. Study on Ethnoveterinary Practices in Jumla. In: 9th National Proceedings of Livestock and Fisheries Research, Nepal, 277–282.
CBS. 2012. National Population and Housing Census 2011. In Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal.
Chaudhary R. 1994. Plants used in the treatment of domestic cattles in Narayani zone (central Nepal). In: IInd National Conference on Science and Technology, 835–847.
Cox PA, Ballick MJ. 1994. The Ethnobotanical Approach to Drug Discovery. Sci Am 270(6): 82–87.
DHM. 2017. Observed Climate Trend Analysis in the Districts and Physiographic Regions of Nepal (1971-2014). Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Kathmandu. https://www.dhm.gov.np/uploads/climatic/467608975Observed Climate Trend Analysis Report_2017_Final.pdf
DPR. 2015. Plant resources. In D. Lamichchane, S. Basukala, U. Tandukar, & P. B. Lakhey (Eds.), Bulletin of Department of Plant Resources 37(1). Department of Plant Resources (DPR), Kathmandu, Nepal. https://dpr.gov.np/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Plant-Resources-2015.pdf
Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D. 1986. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. J J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 275–287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90094-2
Ganesan S, Chandhirasekaran M, Selvaraj A. 2008. Ethnoveterinary healthcare practices in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Indian J Tradit Knowl 7(2): 347–354.
Hassan N, Nisar M, Kakar SUR, Ul Hassan F, Zhiwei Zhong S, Nong L, Ijaz Khan M, Shuaib M, Wang D, Deli Wang C, Zhong Z. 2017. Determination of informant consensus factor of medicinal plants used as therapy in district Dir Lower Pakistan. J Med Plants Stud 5(4): 183–188.
Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O. 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Soc Sci Med 47(11): 1859–1871. DOI: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00181-6
Hill AF. 1952. Economic Botany: A Textbook of Useful Plants and Plant Products (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill.
IUCN Nepal. (2000). National Register of Medicinal Plants. IUCN Nepal. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2000-058.pdf
Koirala RR, Khaniya BN. 2009. Present Status of Traditional Medicines and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Related Resources and Organizations in Nepal. Nepal Health Research Council: Kathmandu, Nepal.
Lin JH, Kaphle K, Wu LS, Yang NYJ, Lu G, Yu C, Yamada H, Rogers PAM. 2003. Sustainable veterinary medicine for the new era. Rev Sci Tech Off In Epiz 22(3): 949–964. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.22.3.1451
Malla B, Chhetri R. 2012. Ethnoveterinary Practices Of Some Plant Species By Ethnic People Of Parbat District, Nepal. KU J Sci Eng Technol 8(1), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.3126/kuset.v8i1.6042
McCorkle CM, Green EC. 1998. Intersectoral healthcare delivery. Agr Hum Val 15, 105–114.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007417125712
MOAD. 2017. Statistical information on Nepalese Agriculture 2073/74 (2016/17). Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Nepal
Petrovska BB. 2012. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacogn Rev 6(11): 1–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.95849
Phondani PC, Maikhuri RK, Kala CP. 2010. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among traditional herbal healers in Alaknanda catchment of Uttarakhand, India. Afr J Tradi Complement Altern Med 7(3): 195–206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v7i3.54775
Poffenberger M, McGean B, Khare A, Campbell J. 2010. Community Forest Economy and Use Patterns?: Participatory Rural Appraisal ( PRA ) Methods in South Gujarat , India. In Field Method Manual Volume 2 http://www.mekonginfo.org/assets/midocs/0002960-environment-field-methods-manual-volume-ii-community-forest-economy-and-use-patterns-participatory-rural-appraisal-pra-methods-in-south-gujarat-india.pdf
Raut B, Shrestha AP. 2012. Ethnoveterinary Practices in Western Morang, Nepal. Int J Pharm Sci 3(1): 182–188.
Ryan A. 2014. Documenting Traditional Medical Knowledge. World Intellectual Property Organization,
Tariq A, Mussarat S, Adnan M, Abdelsalam NM, Ullah R, Khan AL. 2014. Ethnoveterinary Study of Medicinal Plants in a Tribal Society of Sulaiman Range. Sci World J 2014(1): 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/127526
Williams N. 2005. On the trail of Nepal’s flora. Curr Biol 15(24): R977–R978. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2005.11.056
Yineger H, Yewhalaw D, Teketay D. 2008. Plants of veterinary importance in southwestern ethiopia: The case of gilgel ghibe area. For Trees and Livelihoods 18(2): 165–181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14728028.2008.9752627