Larval habitats characteristics of Culicinae subfamily in the south of Iran Culicinae subfamily in southern of Iran

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

S. DOOSTI
M.R. YAGHOOBI-ERSHADI
M.M. SEDAGHAT
K. AKBARZADEH
GIDIGLO NUTIFAFA GODWIN

Abstract

Abstract. Doosti S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Sedahhat MM, Akbarzadeh K, Godwin GN. 2021. Larval habitats characteristics of Culicinae subfamily in southern of Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 13: 194-201. Globally, mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are known vectors of many diseases such as Malaria, Dengue fever, Sindbis, West Nile virus, Rift Vally fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Filariasis. This study aimed to determine larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in the southern part of Iran during 2009-2013. The study was carried out in mosquitoes' larval habitats, and samples were collected using dipping and pipette methods. The larvae were kept in lactophenol solution and transferred to the laboratory of Medical Entomology. Then, microscopic slides were prepared and species were identified using reliable morphological keys. Characteristics of larval breeding places were investigated based on the habitat type, water conditions, vegetation, and sunlight exposure. A total of 8188 mosquito larvae were collected from 209 different breeding places. In all, 20 mosquito species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Culex quienquefaciatus, Cx. pipiens, Culiseta longiareolata, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. theileri and Aedes caspius were the most common species found in this study. The southern part of Iran has the most wharfs and airports across the country. Additionally, there is a high diversity of medically important mosquito species like Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vexans from the Culicidae family. The species are capable of vectoring various diseases in the southern part of Iran; hence, there is a need for more investigations.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Foster WA, Walker ED. 2009. Mosqui-toes (Culicidae). Mullen GR, Durden LA. Medical and Veterinary Entomol-ogy. Elsevir, Oxford, pp. 207–260.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR, Javadian E, Mobedi I, Abai MR, Linton YM & Harbach RE. 2009a. Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilarasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med and Veterin Entomol 23: 111-121. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2009.00802.x.
Naficy K, Saidi S. 1970. Serological survey on viral antibodies in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 2:183-188.
Saidi S, Tesh R, Javadian E, Nadim A. 1976. The prevalence of human infection with West Nile virus in Iran. Iran J Publ Health 5(1):8-13.
Azari-Hamidian S. 2007. Checklist of Iranian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vect Ecol 32 (2): 235-242. DOI: 10.3376/1081-1710 (2007) 32 [235: coimdc] 2.0.co; 2.
Shah hosseini N, Chinikar S, Mossa-Kazemi SH, Sedaghat MM, Kayedi MH, Luh-ken R, Schmidt-Chanasit J. 2017. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran. Trop Med Int Health 22 (10): 1343–1349. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12935. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
Zaim M. 1987a. The mosquito fauna of Kashan, public health importance and control. Desert, Scientific Research. 18: 1-41 [In Persian].
Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G. 2004. Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan Province and their susceptibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35(2): 22–25.
Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Zamani G, Townson H. 2006. Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan Province, southern Iran, 2002. Acta Trop 97(2): 196–203. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.11.002. Epub 2005 Dec 2.
Moosa-Kazemi S, Vatandoost H, Nikookar H, Fathian M. 2009. Culicinae (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in chabahar County, sistan and baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 3(1): 29–35.
Azari-Hamidian S. 2011. Larval habitat characteristics of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in Guilan Province, northern ran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 5(1): 37–53.
Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Gorouhi A, Abai MR, Madjidpour A, Arshi S, Sadeghi H, Nazari M, Mehravaran A. 2011. Anopheline species composition in borderline of Iran-Azerbaijan. Acta Trop 119(1): 44–49. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 Apr 12.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Doosti S, Azari-Hamidian S. 2017. Larval habitats, affinity and diversity indi-ces of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Iran. Inter J Mosq Res 4(2): 27–38.
Harbach RE. 2018. Mosquito taxonomic inventory. Available at: http://mosquito-taxonomic-inventory info/. Updated June 6. Accessed July 29, 2018.
Zaim M and Cranston PS. 1986. Check list and Keys to the culicinae of Iran (Diptera:Culicidae). Mosq sys 18 (3.4):233-245.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghobi-Ershadi MR, Shemshad Kh, Pedram M, Amani H. 2008. The Anopheles superpictus complex: introduction of a new malaria vec-tor complex in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 101: 429–434.
Djadid ND, Jazayeri H, Gholizadeh S, Rad ShP, Zakeri S. 2009. First record of a new member of Anopheles Hyrcanus Group from Iran: molecular identification, diagnosis, phylogeny, status of kdr resistance and Plasmodium infec-tion. J Med Entomol 46: 1084–1093. doi: 10.1603/033.046.0515.
Muirhead-Thomson RC. 1951. Mosquito Behaviour in Relation to Malaria Transmission and Control in the Tropics. Edward Arnold and Co, London, 219.
Clements AN. 1992. The Biology of Mosquitoes Volume 1. Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. Chapman and Hall, London, 509.
Sasikumar PS, Suryanarayanan P, Thomas C, Kalyanaraman K, Prasad RS. 1986. Influence of certain physic-chemical factors upon the larval population of Mansonia mosquitoes (Culicidae: Diptera) in Trivandrum City, India. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences) 95:549-555.
Piyaratne MK, Amerasinhe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Konradsen F. 2005. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka. J Vect Born Dise 42:61-67.
Surendran SN, Ramasamy R. 2005. Some characteristics of the larval breeding sites of Anopheles culicifacies species B and E in Sri Lanka. J Vect Born Dise 42:39-44.
Lotfi MD. 1970. Iranian species of genus Culex ([Culinae]: Diptera). Bull de la Soci de Patho Exoti 63:399-403.
22. Lotfi MD. 1973. Iranian species of genus Culex (Culicinae: Diptera) II. Report of four species of larvae (including three new records) and 14 adult species. Bull de la Soci de Patho Exoti 66:204-207.
Lotfi MD. 1976. Key to Culicinae of Iran, genus Culex and their biology (Diptera: Culicidae). Iranian J Publ Health 5: 71-84.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zaim M and Manouchehri AV. 1986. Studies on the biology of the mosquitoes in the districts of Minab, Hormozgan province, Iran (1983-84). 1- Characteristics of the larval breeding sites. J Environ 13:17-39.
Zaim M. 1987b. The distribution and larval Hahitat characteristics of Iranian culicinae. J Ame Mosq Cont Associ 3: 573-588.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E. 2002a. The distribution and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Rasht County (Guilan Province, Iran). Modarres J Med Sci 4: 87-96 [In Persian with English abstract].
Zaim M and Cranston PS. 1986. Checklist and keys to the Culicinae of Iran (Diptera; Culicidae). Mosq Syst 18: 233–245.
Harbach RE. 1985. Pictorial Keys to the genera of mosquitoes, subgenera of culex and the species of culex (culex) occurring in south-western Asia and Egypt, with a note on the subgeneric placement of Culex deserticula (Diptera:Culicidae).Mosq Sys 17 (2): 83-107.
Azari-Hamidian S, Harbach RE. 2009b. Keys to the adult females and fourth-instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa 2078:1-33.
Azari-Hamidia1 S, MR Abai, M Mashayekhi, H Ladonni, H Vatandoost, AA Hanafi-Bojd, F Faghih-Naini, M Jedari. 2005a. The Subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kerman Province, Southern Iran. Iranian J Publ Health 34 (3): 67-69.
Sofizadeh A, Shoraka HR, Mesgarian F, Ozbaki GM, Gharaninia AS, Sahneh E, Dankoob R, Malaka A, Fallah S, Nemani SH. 2018. Fauna and Larval Habitats Characteristics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran, 2014–2015. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 12 (3): 240–251. doi.org/10.18502/jad.v12i3.76.
Horsfall WR .1955. Mosquitoes. Their Bionomics and Relation to Disease. Hafner Publishing, New York.
Cranston PS, Ramsdale CD, Snow KR, White GB. 1987. Keys to the Adults, Male Hypopygia, Fourth-Instar Larvae and Pupae of the British Mosquitoes (Culicidae) with Notes on their Ecology and Medical Importance. Fresh Water Biological Association Scientific Publication, No.48, Cumbria.
Harbach RE. 1988. The mosquitoes of the subgenus Culex in southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Contri America Entomol Inst 24:1-240.
Service MW. 1993. Mosquitoes (Culicidae). In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW (Eds) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall. London, pp 120-240.
Mousakazemi S, Zaim M, Zahraii A. 2000. Fauna and ecology of Culicidae of the Zarrin- Shahr and Mobarakeh area in Isfahan Province. Armaghan Danesh, J Yasuj Univ Med Sci 5: 46-54 [In Persian].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joefshani MA, Moss-lem M. 2005b. Mosquitoes fauna and distribution of the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province. Pajouhesh and Sazandegh 68: 39–45. (Persian).
Azari-Hamidian S, Abai MR, Arzamani K, Bakhshi H, Karami H, Ladonni H and Harbach RE. 2011a. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of North Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran and the Zoogeographic Affinities of the Iranian and Middle Asian Mosquito Fauna. Journal of Entomolog 8: 204-217.
Azari-Hamidian S, Linton YM, Abai MR, Ladonni H, Oshaghi M A, Hanafi-Bojd A A, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Shabkhiz H, Pakari A and Harbach RE. 2010. 'Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of the Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf', J Natural His 44: 15:913-925.
Navidpour S, Vazirianzadeh B, Harbach R, Jahanifard E, Moravvej SA. 2012. The identification of culicine mosquitoes in the Shadegan wetland in southwestern Iran. J Insect Sci 12:105.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zaim M, Manouchehri AV. 1986. Studies on the biology of the mosquitoes in the district of Minab, Hormozgan Province, Iran, (1983-84)1-Characteristics of the larval breeding sites. J Env Stud 13: 17-39 [In Persian with English abstract].
Gutsevich AV. 1943. On the mosquitoes of North Iran. Comtes Rendus Academic Science URSS. XL (3): 123-125.
Azari-Hamidian S. 2005c. Larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes of the ge-nus Culiseta Felt, 1904 (Diptera: Cu-licidae) in the Caspian Sea littoral, Iran. Zool Middle East 36(1): 59–66.
Dehghan H, Sadraei J, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Davari B. 2011. Ecological study of Culex pipiens, the dominant species of Culicidae mosquitoes and its control solutions in Yazd Province. Sci J Kurdistan Uni Med Sci 15(4): 81–88 (Persian).
Sofizadeh A, Edalat H, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA. 2016. Fauna and some biological characteristics of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kalaleh County, Golestan Province, northeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6(9): 730–734.
Abai MR, Saghafipour A, Ladonni H, Jesri N, Omidi S, Azari-Hamidian S. 2016. Physicochemical characteristics of larval habitat waters of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Qom Province, central Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 10(1): 65–77.
Moosa Kazemi SH, Karimian F, Davari B. 2010. Culicinae mosquitoes in Sanan-daj County, Kurdistan Province, eastern Iran. Vector Borne Dis 47: 103–107.
Banafshi O, Abai MR, Ladonni H, Bakh-shi H, Karami H, Azari-Hamidian S. 2013. The fauna and ecology of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Iran. Turk J Zool 37: 298–307.
Muirhead-Thomson RC. 1951. Mosquito Behavior in Relation to Malaria Transmission and Control in the Tropics. Edward Arnold and Co, London. 219.
Clements AN. 1992. The Biology of Mosquitoes Volume 1. Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. Chapman and Hall, London. 509.
Sasikumar PS, Suryanarayanan P, Thomas C, Kalyanaraman K, Prasad RS. 1986. Influence of certain physic-chemical factors upon the larval population of Mansonia mosquitoes (Culicidae: Diptera) in Trivandrum City, India. Procee India Acadm Sci (Animal Sciences) 95:549-555.