Abstract. Kapitan EM, Arjana IGB, Santoso P. 2020. Impact of salt pond industry on the changes of mangrove ecosystem in Kupang Bay, Timor Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 63-73. The study of the effect of salt pond industry on changes in mangrove ecosystems in Kupang Bay was carried out between July and September 2018. This study aims to examine the effect of the salt pond area and salt pond production on the dominance and diversity of mangrove population. The study was conducted by survey method through direct observation in the field and community interviews at three research stations. Data on mangrove vegetation were collected using the line transect method. The results of the study found 9 (nine) species from 4 (four) families. Overall tree density is relatively rare while seedling levels are categorized as high. The highest frequency types for tree level, saplings, and seedlings, namely Ceriops tagal. The results of the regression analysis showed that the area of salt ponds and the production of salt ponds did not have a significant effect on dominance and diversity of mangrove population (p>0.05). However, there was a positive relationship between salt pond area and salt pond production with the dominance of the mangrove population. Whereas, both salt pond area and salt pond production with a diversity of mangrove populations showed a negative relationship. These results indicate a tendency that an increase in both salt pond area and salt production will increase the dominance of the mangrove population, but decrease its diversity. This shows that the influence of the salt pond area and salt pond production has not had a significant effect on the dominance and diversity of mangrove populations in the current conditions.