Abstract. Noviantari A, Khariri. 2020. Various research and development of isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from several sources. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 6: 586-593. The development of technology in the world of modern medicine has led to a regenerative approach by utilizing the great potential of stem cells. Stem cells are cells that can multiply (self-renewal), do not yet have specific forms and functions (undifferentiated) but can differentiate into other cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent which can differentiate into various cell types but are limited to only one cell group and can express several specific markers. MSCs can be isolated from various sources: the bone marrow, fat tissue, dental pulp, Wharton jelly, cord blood, and others. This paper describes the research and development of MSCs isolation from various sources. This review is a literature review through a literature search that outlines various studies and development of MSCs isolation and culture, MSCs cryopreservation, MSCs differentiation ability, MSCs immunotolerant, application of MSCs to degenerative diseases, MCSs homing, and update: MSCs name controversion. The material used as study material in the literature published in the period 2009-2019. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, hepatic cells, neurons, and others. MSC can be isolated from various sources such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, extra-fetal tissue (Wharton jelly and umbilical cord blood), teeth, and skin. MSC has great potential for the treatment of degenerative diseases and brings a major breakthrough in the field of modern medicine. Stem cell research continues to develop, but on the other hand, it remains controversial because it is considered to be less ethical, especially those originating from embryonic stem cells.