Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

MUHAMMAD ALFARABI
TURHADI
TRINI SURYOWATI
NURIN AYU IMANELI
PRETTY OKTAVIANI SIHOMBING

Abstract

Abstract. Alfarabi M, Turhadi, Suryowati T, Imaneli NA, Sihombing PO. 2022. Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundoBiodiversitas 23: 2663-2667Many plantspecies could be used as natural sources of antioxidants, one of which is Vitex negundo or lagundi which grows widely in Southeast and South Asia. Due to the wide distribution of growth areas, so different habitats could be a factor causing variations in V. negundo bioactivity, especially antioxidant activity. In addition to environmental factors, extract derived from different plant parts could also contribute to variations in the content of metabolites that affect bioactivity. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of leaf and stem extracts of V. negundo and evaluate the metabolites contained in the extracts. Antioxidant activity analysis was performed using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and GC-MS analysis was used to identify bioactive metabolites. Leafand stem extract of V. negundo showed antioxidant activity directly proportional to the increasein extract concentration. A total of 8 metabolites were identified from the three extracts, i.e., acrolein, hydroquinone, sitosterol, naphthalene, pyrogallol, squalene, phytol, and hexadecenoic acid. There were correlations between antioxidant activity and the metabolites contained in the three extracts. It is suggested that the bioactivity of the extract is due to the interaction of these metabolites.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Ahuja SC et al. 2015. Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) - nature’s gift to mankind. Asian Agri-History 19: 5–32.
Bautista NS et al. 2015. Genetic diversity of Vitex negundo L. (Lagundi) in the Philippines using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISRR) marker analysis. J. Nat. Stud 14: 1-11.
Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200. DOI: 10.1038/1811199a0
Boy et al. 2018. Recommended medicinal plants as source of natural products: a review. Digital Chinese Med 1: 131-142. DOI: 10.1016/S2589-3777(19)30018-7
Camini et al. 2017. Implications of oxidative stress on viral pathogenesis. Arch Virol 162: 907–917. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-016-3187-y
Chan JY, Chan SH. 2015. Activation of endogenous antioxidants as a common therapeutic strategy against cancer, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular diseases: A lesson learnt from DJ-1. Pharmacol Ther 156: 69-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.09.005
Dillak HI, Kristiani, EBE, Kasmiyati S. 2019. Secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of faloak (Sterculia quadrifida). Biosaintifika 11: 296-303. DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v11i3.20736
Fatema S et al. 2019. Analysis of biological activity and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of conventional extraction of Vitex negundo Linn. Leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 12: 289-292. DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i1.27854
Fleming E, Luo Y. 2021. Co-delivery of synergistic antioxidants from food sources for the prevention of oxidative stress. J Agric Food Res 3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafr.2021.100107
Gan J et al. 2017. Correlations between antioxidant activity and alkaloids and phenols of maca (Lepidium meyenii). J Food Qual. DOI: 10.1155/2017/3185945
Gill BS et al. 2018. Vitex negundo and its medicinal value. Mol Biol Rep. 45: 2925-2934. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4421-3
Halliwell B. 2020. Reflections of an aging free radical. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 161, 234-245. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.10.010
Heldt, H.W., Piechulla, B., 2011. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments. In Plant Biochemistry. pp: 1-42. Academic Press, Inc. (United State).
Harris IS, DeNicola GM. 2020. The complex interplay between antioxidants and ROS in cancer. Trends Cell Biol 30: 440-451. DOI: 10.1016/j.tcb.2020.03.002
Koirala N et al. 2020. Vitex negundo Linn.: phytochemical composition, nutritional analysis, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Cell Mol Biol 66: 1-7. DOI: 10.14715/cmb/2020.66.4.1
Salvana FR et al. 2019. Leaf morphological characterization and cluster analysis of Vitex negundo morphotypes. Envir Exp Biol 17: 75–83. DOI: 10.22364/eeb.17.07
Shadyroa O, Samovicha S, Edimecheva I. 2019. Free-radical and biochemical reactions involving polar part of glycerophospholipids. Free Radic Biol Med 144: 6-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.02.033
Wang XQ et al. 2021. Free radicals for cancer theranostics. Biomaterials 266. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120474
Wu J. 2020. Tackle the free radicals damage in COVID-19. Nitric Oxide 102: 39–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2020.06.002
Yuningtyas S et al. 2021. Aktivitas antioksidan, total fenol, dan kadar vitamin c dari kombucha daun salam (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.). J Farmamedika 6: 10-14. DOI: 10.47219/ath.v6i1.116