Distribution and conservation of the narrow sub-endemic shrub, Lonicera paradoxa in Pamir-Alay, Central Asia




Abstract. Daminova N, Nosirov S, Akbarov F, Tojibaev K, Temirov E. 2024. Distribution and conservation of the narrow sub-endemic shrub, Lonicera paradoxa in Pamir-Alay, Central Asia. Biodiversitas 25: 439-448. Lonicera paradoxa Pojark. (Lonicera ser. Alpigenae Pojark. ex A.Byalt) is a shrub with a geographically limited range. This species is included in the national red book lists of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan and is considered one of the rare species in danger of extinction in nature. The species grows in a significant elevation from 1600 to 3200 m on the Northern slopes of the Alay Range, Central Asia. In this study, we investigated the geographic distribution of L. paradoxa based on scientific literature, herbarium data collections, and field surveys. We then modeled the current and potential future geographic distribution using Maxent. We also conducted a propagation study for its conservation under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Our fieldwork in 2021-2022 found new records of L. paradoxa in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. We calculated the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and Area of Occupancy (AOO) of the species, which were 5.08 km2 (VU) and 28 km2 (EN), respectively. Therefore, based on the IUCN Red List and Criteria, we recommend the conservation status of L. paradoxa as endangered (EN) in categories B2 ab (ii, iii, iv) + D. Our modeling prediction suggested that compared to the current, suitable habitat of L. paradoxa to reduce significantly in the future with very suitable habitats are expected to expand to the south and high mountain areas. For the first time, the conservation measures of L. paradoxa were carried out at the Tashkent Botanical Garden. The conducted research made it possible to preserve L. paradoxa in ex-situ conditions. The results of this research can be helpful in determining and planning measures for the protection of L. paradoxa in the territory of the Kyrgyz and Tajikistan Republics, both now and in the future.


Abduraimov ?S, Kovalenko IN, Makhmudov AV, Allamurotov AL, Mavlanov BJ. 2022. Ontogenetic structure of cenopopulations of Allium pskemense (Amaryllidaceae) in Uzbekistan. Biosyst Divers 30 (1): 88-94. DOI: 10.15421/012209.
Abduraimov ?S, Makhmudov AV, Kovalenko I, Allamurotov AL, Mavlanov BJ, Shakhnoza SU, Mamatkasimov OT. 2023. Floristic diversity and economic importance of wild relatives of cultivated plants in Uzbekistan (Central Asia). Biodiversiatas 24 (3): 1668-1675. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d240340.
Baral H, Keenan RJ, Sharma SK, Stork NE, Kasel S. 2014. Spatial assessment and mapping of biodiversity and conservation priorities in a heavily modified and fragmented production landscape in North-Central Victoria, Australia. Ecol Indic 36: 552-562. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.09.022.
Besnard G, Gaudeul M, Lavergne S, Muller S, Rouhan G, Sukhorukov AP, Vanderpoorten A, Jabbour F. 2018. Herbarium-based science in the twenty-first century. Bot Lett 165 (3-4): 323-327. DOI: 10.1080/23818107.2018.1482783.
Brown JL. 2014. SDM toolbox: A python?based GIS toolkit for landscape genetic, biogeographic, and species distribution model analyses. Methods Ecol Evol 5 (7): 694-700. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12200.
Callmander MW, Schatz GE, Lowry PP. 2005. IUCN Red List assessment and the global strategy for plant conservation: Taxonomists must act now. Taxon 54 (4): 1047-1050. DOI: 10.2307/25065491.
Daminova N, Kumar A, Turdiboev O, Hamdard MH, Rather SA. 2023. Lectotypification of two names in Spiraea and its distribution. Rostaniha 23 (2): 287-292. DOI: 10.22092/botany.2022.358516.1304.
Daminova NE. 2023. Lonicera paradoxa Pojark., a rare representative of dendroflora of Fergana Valley: Distribution and conservation. QarDU xabarlari 1 (57): 90-96.
Davletkeldiev A. 2006. Data Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic. ECOGUIDE, Bishkek.
Eastwood A, Lazkov G, Newton AC. 2009. The Red List of Trees of Central Asia. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, UK.
Fick SE, Hijmans RJ. 2017. WorldClim 2: New 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. Intl J Climatol 37 (12): 4302-4315. DOI: 10.1002/joc.5086.
Hengl T, de Jesus JM, Heuvelink GBM, Gonzalez MR, Kilibarda M, Blagoti? A, Shangguan W, Wright MN, Geng X, Bauer-Marschallinger B, Guevara MA, Vargas R, MacMillan RA, Batjes NH, Leenaars JGB, Ribeiro E, Wheeler I, Mantel S, Kempen B. 2017. SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning. PLoS One 12 (2): e0169748. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169748.
Hengl T, Heuvelink GBM, Kempen B, Leenaars JGB, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD, Sila A, MacMillan RA, de Jesus JM, Tamene L, Tondoh JE. 2015. Mapping soil properties of Africa at 250 m resolution: Random forests significantly improve current predictions. PLoS One 10 (6): e0125814. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125814.
Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. 2005. Very high-resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Intl J Climatol 25 (15): 1965-1978. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1276.
Hosni EM, Nasser MG, Al-Ashaal SA, Rady MH, Kenawy MA. 2020. Modeling current and future global distribution of Chrysomya bezziana under changing climate. Sci Rep 10 (1): 4947. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-61962-8.
Islam K, Rahman MF, Islam KN, Nath TK, Jashimuddin M. 2020. Modeling spatiotemporal distribution of Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn. F in Bangladesh under climate change scenarios. J Sustain For 39 (3): 221-241. DOI: 10.1080/10549811.2019.1632721.
Ivanova ZY. 1982. Biological bases and methods of vegetative propagation of woody plants by stem cuttings. Naukova dumka, Kyiv.
Kamelin RK. 1973. Florogenetic analysis of the native flora of the Mountain Middle Asia. Nauka, Leningrad.
Kandziora M, Burkhard B, Müller F. 2013. Interactions of ecosystem properties, ecosystem integrity and ecosystem service indicators-A theoretical matrix exercise. Ecol Indic 28: 54-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.09.006.
Keane RE, Holsinger LM, Loehman R. 2020. Bioclimatic modeling of potential vegetation types as an alternative to species distribution models for projecting plant species shifts under changing climates. For Ecol Manag 477: 118498. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118498.
Khanal S, Timilsina R, Behroozian M, Peterson AT, Poudel M, Alwar MSS, Wijewicrama T, Osorio-Olvera L. 2022. Potential impact of climate change on the distribution and conservation status of Pterocarpus marsupium, a Near Threatened South Asian medicinal tree species. Ecol Inform 70: 101722. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoinf.2022.101722.
Khassanov FO. 2015. Conspectus Florae Asiae Mediae, vol. 11. Fan AS RUz, Tashkent.
Khassanov FO. 2019. The Red Data Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan Plants and Fungi. Chinor ENK, Tashkent.
Kirillova LL, Melnik LS, Medvedeva NV, Pechkova AM, Fedulova OA. 2017. Vegetative reproduction of Lonicera caerulea. New and non-traditional plants and prospects for their use 12: 219-221. DOI: 10.26897/0021-342X-2018-1-82-91. [Russian]
Li W, Tojibaev KS, Hisoriev H, Shomurodov KF, Luo M, Feng Y, Ma K. 2020. Mapping Asia Plants: Current status of floristic information for Central Asian flora. Glob Ecol Conserv 24: e01220. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01220.
Marcer A, Sáez L, Molowny-Horas R, Pons X, Pino J. 2013. Using species distribution modelling to disentangle realised versus potential distributions for rare species conservation. Biol Conserv 166: 221-230. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.07.001.
Mohammadi S, Ebrahimi E, Moghadam MS, Bosso L. 2019. Modelling current and future potential distributions of two desert jerboas under climate change in Iran. Ecol Inform 52: 7-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoinf.2019.04.003.
Pacifici K, Reich BJ, Miller DAW, Gardner B, Stauffer G, Singh S, McKerrow A, Collazo JA. 2017. Integrating multiple data sources in species distribution modeling: A framework for data fusion. Ecology 98 (3): 840-850. DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1710.
Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Dudík M, Schapire RE, Blair ME. 2017. Opening the black box: An open?source release of Maxent. Ecography 40 (7): 887-893. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.03049.
Phillips SJ, Dudík M, Schapire RE. 2021. Maxent software for modeling species niches and distributions (Version 3.4. 1). 2018. Available in: http:biodiversityinformatics.amnh.org/open_source/maxent/
Phillips SJ, Dudík M. 2008. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: New extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31 (2): 161-175. DOI: 10.1111/j.0906-7590.2008.5203.x.
Pojarkova AI. 1946. Species nova generis Lonicera L. Ex Asia Media. Publication. Botanical Materials of the Herbarium of the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 9: 210-212.
Rabotnov TA. 1950. Life Cycle of Perennial Herbaceous Plants in Meadow Cenoses. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
Radosavljevic A, Anderson RP. 2014. Making better Maxent models of species distributions: Complexity, overfitting and evaluation. J Biogeogr 41 (4): 629-643. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12227.
Rahimi F. 2017. Red Book of the Republic of Tajikistan. Ghanch, Dushanbe.
Rakhimova ?, Rakhimova NK, Shomurodov KF, Abduraimov ?S. 2020. Ontogenetic structure of rare plant species on the Usturt Plateau in Uzbekistan. Arid Ecosyst 10: 238-243. DOI: 10.1134/S2079096120030075.
Solonkin AV, Nikolskaya OA, Semenyutina AV, Solomentseva AS, Kikteva EN. 2020. Features of vegetative reproduction and growth of Ligústrum vulgare l. Sci Agron J 2 (109): 35-41. [Russian]
Sporbert M, Jakubka D, Butcher SF, Hensen I, Freiberg M, Heubach K, König A, Nordt B, Plos C, Blinova I, Bonn A, Knickmann B, Koubek T, Linstädter A, Mašková T, Primack RB, Rosche C, Shah MA, Stevens A-D, Tielbörger K, Träger S, Wirth C, Römermann C. 2022. Functional traits influence patterns in vegetative and reproductive plant phenology-A multi?botanical garden study. New Phytol 235 (6): 2199-2210. DOI: 10.1111/nph.18345.
Syfert MM, Smith MJ, Coomes DA. 2013. The effects of sampling bias and model complexity on the predictive performance of MaxEnt species distribution models. PLoS One 8 (7): e55158. DOI: 10.1371/annatation/35be5dff-7709-4029-8cfa-f1357e5001f5.
Tian Z, Song H, Wang Y, Li J, Maimaiti M, Liu Z, Zhang H, Zhang J. 2022. Wild apples are not that wild: Conservation status and potential threats of Malus sieversii in the mountains of Central Asia biodiversity hotspot. Diversity 14 (6): 489. DOI: 10.3390/d14060489.
Tojibaev K, Karimov F, Choi HJ, Choi K, Jang C-G. 2019. Relisting of the 2 species Lamyropappus schakaptaricus (B. Fedtsch.) Knorring & Tamamsch. and Hedysarum gypsaceum Korotkova in the flora of Uzbekistan. J Asia Pac Biodivers 12 (4): 693-697. DOI: 10.1016/j.japb.2019.08.004.
Tojibaev KS, Beshko NY, Popov VA, Jang CG, Chang KS. 2017. Botanical Geography of Uzbekistan. Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum, Korea.
Tojibaev KS, Jang CG, Lazkov GA, Chang KS, Sitpayeva GT, Safarov N, Beshko NY, Muktubaeyeva SK, Vesselova PV, Turakulov I, Abdurakhhmanova YY, Na N-R, Park M-S, Choi K, Choi H-J, Oh B-U, Oh S-H. 2020. An annotated checklist of endemic vascular plants of the Tian-Shan Mountains in Central Asian countries. Phytotaxa 464 (2): 117-158. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.464.2.1.
Volis S, Tojibaev K. 2021. Defining critical habitat for plant species with poor occurrence knowledge and identification of critical habitat networks. Biodivers Conserv 30 (12): 3603-3611. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02265-w.
Volis S. 2022. Conservation-oriented restoration and its application to Central Asia. Plant Divers Cent Asia 1: 1-19. DOI: 10.54981/PCDA/vol1_iss1/a3.
Wei B, Wang R, Hou K, Wang X, Wu W. 2018. Predicting the current and future cultivation regions of Carthamus tinctorius L. using MaxEnt model under climate change in China. Glob Ecol Conserv 16: e00477. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00477.
Wulff AS, Hollingsworth PM, Ahrends A, Jaffré T, Veillon J-M, L’Huillier L, Fogliani B. 2013. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: Analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia. PLoS One 8 (9): e73371. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073371.
Yan H, Feng L, Zhao Y, Feng L, Wu D, Zhu C. 2020. Prediction of the spatial distribution of Alternanthera philoxeroides in China based on ArcGIS and MaxEnt. Glob Ecol Conserv 21: e00856. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00856.
Yin H, Khamzina A, Pflugmacher D, Martius C. 2017. Forest cover mapping in post-Soviet Central Asia using multi-resolution remote sensing imagery. Sci Rep 7: 1375. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01582-x.
Zhao R, Chu X, He Q, Tang Y, Song M, Zhu Z. 2020. Modeling current and future potential geographical distribution of Carpinus tientaiensis, a critically endangered species from China. Forests 11 (7): 774. DOI: 10.3390/f11070774.