Impact of agricultural crop type and hunting on bird communities of two villages in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Hakim L, Abdoellah OS, Parikesit, Withaningsih S. 2020. Impact of agricultural crop type and hunting on bird communities of two villages in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 57-66. Land use change has occurred in the Upper Citarum Watershed over time, converting tropical rain-forest to man-made cash-crop gardens dominate the agricultural landscape, leaving mixed-garden (talun), rice fields and smallholder plantation. This changes species composition, community structure and animal diversity, especially bird species. The objective of this paper was to study bird structure community in rural agricultural landscape in Upper Citarum Watershed. We conducted the survey from February to March 2018. We surveyed birds at 36 point counts (PCs), each PC's surveyed six times for 15 minutes along total 6 km of transects in the agricultural landscape in Sukapura and Resmi Tingal Village, consisting of 12 PCs in mixed-garden, 12 PCs in homegarden and 12 PCs in cash-crop garden. Twenty-nine bird species, 17 families and 1.103 individuals were recorded; 2 species being protected by Indonesian law in all sites, three Javan Island endemics and one species migrant bird species. The insectivorous birds are dominant with 15 species in all land-use types. Passer montanus and Javan munia were the most common birds in all land-use types with 820 of 1.103 individual birds (74,9%) were of two bird species. Mixed-garden had higher bird diversity, species richness, and evenness index than the homegarden and cash-crops garden because of the complexity of vegetation structure and canopy cover stratification. There was a significant decrease in some bird species which in the previous study was dominant to be reduced even to local extinctions such as Oriental White-eye (Zosterops palpebrosus), Crescent-chested Babbler (Stachyris melanothorax) and Western Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava). Decreased bamboo-tree garden as Crescent-chested Babbler habitat is suspected to be the cause of declination of this bird population. In addition, unregulated bird hunting is also one of the causes of the declining bird populations, especially birds with market value. Some species such as Oriental White-eye (Zosterops palpebrosus), Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster), Great Tit (Parus major), Bar-winged prinia (Prinia familiaris), Javan myna (Acridotheres javanicus) and Spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) have rapidly decreased population because of bird hunting activities.


Abdoellah, O.S. 2017. Human Ecology and Sustainable Development. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.
Abdoellah, O.S., Hadikusumah H.Y, Takeuchi K, and Okubo S. 2006. Commercialization of Homegardens in an Indonesian Village : Vegetation Composition and Functional Changes. Journal of Agroforestry Systems, 68: 1-13.
Bardhan S, Jose S, Biswas S, Kabir K, Rogers W. 2012. Homegarden agroforestry systems: an intermediary for biodiversity conservation in Bangladesh. Agroforestry System 85:29–34
Bibby CJ, Burgess ND., Hill DA and Mustoe SH. 2000. Bird Census Techniques. Tokyo : 2nd Ed.Academic Press.
Chambers, S. A. 2008. Birds as Environmental Indicators Review of Literature. Parks Victoria Technical Series. No.55. Melbourne : Parks Victoria.
Ditjen PDASHL. 2015. Strategic Plan of the Directorate General of Watershed and Protected Forest for 2015-2019. Directorate General of Watershed and Protected Forest, Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
Erawan T.S, Djuangsih N, Muchtar M., Setiana H and Istanti L.S. 1997. Community structure and Diversity of fauna in upper Citarum river basin, West Java, Indonesia, In. Dove M., and Sajise, P.E. The Condition of Biodiversity Maintenance in Asia. 73-112.
Gunawan B, Parikesit, Abdoellah O.S. 2002. Environmental Degradation and Food Security: The Case of Upper Citarum (Reflection of Macro Level Issues for Macro Policy Establishment) In : Krisnamurthi, B., D.A.B. Susila., A. Kriswantriyono. (Eds). Proceedings of the Seminar on Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation and Food Security. Center for Development Studies, Research Institute, Bogor Agricultural University, Institutional Food Security Coordination Project, Food Security Guidance Agency, Ministry of Agriculture. (Pp. 137-175). Bogor.
Gunawan H, Sugiarti, Rianti A, Sihombing VS. 2016. Diversity of faunal communities in the Biodiversity Park of Ciherang, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Vol. 17 No. 2:479-486
Hadikusumah HY, Parikesit, Husodo T. 2008. Bird Communities in Five Types of Land Use in Sadu Area, Soreang District, Bandung Regency. Research Report. Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Research, Universitas Padjadjaran. Bandung.
Helvoort BV. 1981. Bird Populations in the Rural Ecosystems of West Java. Nature Conservation, Department of Agricultural, University of Wageningen, Wageningen,The Netherlands.
Husodo, T. 2006. Bird communities in fragmented forests and patches of agricultural land use in the Upper Citarum Watershed, Bandung District. [Dissertation]. Postgraduate Program, Universitas Padjadjaran. Bandung. [Indonesian]
Iskandar J. 1980. Bird ecology research in several rural Citarum Watershed. [Hon. Thesis]. University of Padjadjaran, Sumedang.[Indonesian].
Iskandar J and Iskandar BS. 2015. Utilization of a variety of birds in the birdsong contest and their impact on bird conservation in nature: Case study in the city of Bandung, West Java.. Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Indonesian Biodiversity Society, Vol.1 No.4, Juli 2015, Pages: 747-752. [Indonesian].
Iskandar J, Iskandar BS, Partasasmita R. 2016. The local knowledge of the rural people on species, role and hunting of birds : Case study in Karangwangi Village, West Java, Indonesia. Jurnal Biodiversitas, Vol. 17 No. 2, October 2016, Pages: 435-446.
Iskandar BS, Iskandar J, Partasasmita R. 2019. Hobby and business on trading birds: Case study in bird market of Sukahaji, Bandung, West Java and Splendid, Malang East Java (Indonesia) Jurnal Biodiversitas, Vol.20 No. 5, May 2019, Pages: 1316-1332.
IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature and NaturalResources]. 2015. Red List of threatened species. www.
Jose S. 2012. Agroforestry for conserving and enhancing biodiversity. Agroforestry system 85:1–8
Krebs C.J. 1985. Experimental Analysis of Distribution and abundance. Third ed. New York: Harper & Row Publisher, New York.
Maas B, Tscharntke T, Saleh S, Dwi Putra D and Clough Y. 2015. Avian species identity drives predation success in tropical cacao agroforestry. Appl. Ecol 52:735-743
MacArthur RH and MacArthur JW. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594-8
MacNally R, Ellis M. and Barrett G. 2004. Avian biodiversity monitoring in Australian rangelands. Austral Ecology. 29, 93-9.
MacKinnon J, Phillipps K, Balen VB. 1992. Birds of Sumatera, Java, Bali and Kalimantan. LIPI/Birdlife-Indonesia Program, Bogor.
Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. USA: Blackwell Publishing Company.
Ministry of Forestry. 1999. Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 Year 1999 about Flora and Fauna Conservation.
Muhamad D, Okubo S, Miyashita T, Parikesit, Takeuchi K. 2013. Effects of habitat type, vegetation structure, and proximity to forests on bird species richness in a forest–agricultural landscape of West Java, Indonesia. Agroforest Syst 87: 1247.
Newbold T, Hudson LN, Hill SLL, Contu S, Lysenko I, Senior RA, Börger L, Bennett DJ, Choimes A, Collen B. 2015. Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. Nature 520: 45-50.
Parikesit, Takeuchi K, Tsunekawa A, Abdoellah OS. 2005. Kebon tatangkalan: a disappearing agroforest in the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia. Agroforest Syst 63:171–182.
Rajashekara S and Venkatesha MG.2014. Insectivorous bird communities of diverse agro-ecosystems in the Bengaluru region, India. J EntomolZool Stud 2(5):142-155.
Rerkasem K, Lawrence D, Padoch C, Schmidt-Vogt D, Ziegler AD, Bruun TB. 2009. Consequences of swidden transitions for crop and fallow biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Human Ecology 37: 347-360.
Sekercioglu CH. 2006. Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends Ecol Evol 21:464–471.
Soemarwoto O and Conway GR. 1992. The Javanese Homegarden. Journal Farming System, Res.-exten. 2(3):95-118.
Tabur MA and Ayvaz Y. 2010. Ecological Importance of Birds.: Second International Symposium on Sustainable Development Conference. June 8-9 2010., At Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hal: 560-565.
Thakur ML, Mattu VK, Lal HS, Sharma VN, Raj H, Thakur V. 2010. Avifauna of Arki Hills, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), India. Indian Birds 5:162-166.
Tscharntke T, Sekercioglu CH, Dietsch TV, Sodhi NS, Hoehn P, Tylianakis JM. 2008. Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in tropical agroecosystems. Ecology 89:944–951

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>