Effect of the administration of probiotic Bacillus NP5 in the rearing media on water quality, growth, and disease resistance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)




Abstract. Putra AN, Syamsunarno MB, Ningrum W, Jumyanah, Mustahal. 2020. Effect of the administration of probiotic Bacillus NP5 in the rearing media on water quality, growth, and disease resistance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Biodiversitas 21: 2566-2575. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of administration of the probiotic Bacillus NP5 in rearing media on water quality, growth, and disease resistance of African catfish. The study consisted of three different concentrations of probiotic Bacillus NP5 - C: control, A: probiotic Bacillus NP5 of 1 x 109 CFU/mL, and B: probiotic Bacillus NP5 of 1 x 1010 CFU/mL, on the rearing media of African catfish for 45 days. Based on the results, the lowest significant ammonia (P <0.05) was found in treatment A (1.91 ± 0.17 mg/L), then followed by B (2.12 ± 0.14 mg/L) while the highest was in the control (2.36 ± 0.19 mg/L). Treatment A also had a better immune response compared to other treatments shown with the highest significant number of leukocytes at 6.69 ± 0.17 x 104 cells/mm3 and phagocyte activity at 65.19 ± 0.04%. Furthermore, treatment A significantly resulted in the best specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (2.02 ± 0.07%.day-1, 1.05 ± 0.07, respectively). The administration of probiotic Bacillus NP5 of 1 x 109 CFU/mL in rearing media significantly improved the ammonia value, growth, and resistance of African catfish to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.


Adel M, Yeganeh S, Dawood MAO, Safari R, Radhakrishnan S. 2017. Effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microflora and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition 23: 1401-1409. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12515.

Al-Dohail MA, Hashim R. & Aliyu-Paiko M. 2009. Effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus, on the growth performance, haematology parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerling. Aquaculture Research 40: 1642–1652. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02265.x.
Agung AL, Widananrni, Yuhana M. 2015. Application of micro-encapsulated probiotic Bacillus NP5 and prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) to prevent streptococcosis on tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Research Journal of Microbiology 10: 571?581. Doi: 10.3923/jm.2015.571.581
Anderson DP & Siwicki AK. 1995. Basic hematology and serology for fish health program. Proceeding of the second symposium on disease in Asian aquaculture, October 25-29.
APHA. 1998. Standar methods for the examination of the water and wastewater (22nd edn). American public health association. Washington DC. USA
Avnimelech Y & Ritvo G. 2003.Shrimp and fish pond soils: processes and management. Aquaculture 220: 549-567. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00641-5.
Balcazar JL, Blas ID, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D and Múzquiz JL. 2006. The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 173–186. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.01.009.
Banerjee S, Khatoon H, Shariff M, Yusoff F Md. 2010. Enhancement of Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae growth and survival without water exchange using marine Bacillus pumilus and periphytic microorganism. Fisheries Science 76: 481-487. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-010-0230-x.
Banerjee G & Ray AK. 2017. The advancement of probiotics research and its application in fish farming industries. Research in Veterinary Science 115: 66-77. Doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.01.016.
Bhatnagar A & Devi P. 2013. Water quality guidelines for the management of pond fish culture. International Journal Environmental Sciences 3 (6): 1980-2009. doi: 10.6088/ijes.2013030600019.
Blaxhall PC dan Daisley KW. 1973. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology 5(4):771-781. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1973.tb04510.x.
Boyd CE & Mcnevin AA. 2014. Aquaculture resource Use, and the environment. Canada: Wiley Blackwell. 377 pp.
Cerezuela R, Guardiola FA, Gonzales P, Meseguer J, Esteban MA. 2012. Effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis, Tetraselmis chuii, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, singularly or in combination, on the immune response and disease resistance of sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) Fish Shellfish Immunology 33: 342-349. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.004.
Chumol S, Kantachote D, Nitoda T, Kanzaki H. 2017. The roles of probiotic purple nonsulfur bacteria to control water quality and prevent acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) for enhancement growth with higher survival in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during cultivation. Aquaculture 473: 327-336. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.02.033.
Dawood MAO, Koshio S, Abdel-Daim MM, Doan HV. 2018. Probiotic application for sustainable aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture: 1-8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12272.
Davis DA. 2015. Feed and feeding practices in aquaculture. Cambridge UK: Woohead Publishing. 289 pp.
Devaraza T, Banerjee S, Yusoff F, Shariff M, Khatoon H. 2013. A holistic approach for selection of Bacillus spp. as a bioremediator for shrimp postlarvae culture. Turkish Journal of Biology 37: 92-100. doi:10.3906/biy-1203-19.
Elsabagh M, Mohamed R. Moustafa EM, Hamza A, Farrag F, Decamp O, Dawood MAO, Eltholth M. 2018. Assessing the impact Bacillus strains mixture probiotic on water quality, growth performance, blood profile and intestinal morphology of Nile-Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Aquaculture Nutrition 24 (6) 1613-1622. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12797.
Febrianti D, Yuhana M, Widanarni. 2016. Dietary symbiotic microcapsule influence the immune responses, growth performance and microbial population to white spot syndrome virus in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 11 (1): 28-42.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2018. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture: opportunities and challenges. Roma: FAO. 223 pp. Doi: 10.3923/jfas.2016.28.42.
Giri SS, Sen SS, Sukumaran V. 2012. Effect of dietary supplementation of potential probiotic Pseudumonas aeruginosa VSG-2 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32: 1135-1140. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.03.019.
Gomez-Gil B, Roque A, Turnbull JF. 2000. The use and selection of probiotic bacteria for use in the culture of larval aquatic organisms. Aquaculture 191: 259-270. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00431-2.
Gupta A, Verma G, Gupta P. 2016. Growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, innate immunity and protection against Vibrio harveyi of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed diets supplemented with Bacillus coagulans. Aquaculture International 24 (5): 1379-1392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-016-9996-x.
Huisman EA. 1987. Principles of fish production. Department of Fish Culture and Fisheries, Waganingen Agriculture University, Waganingan, Netherland. 170p.
Kir M, Topuz M, Sunar MC, Topuz H. 2016. Acute toxicity of ammonia in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801) at different temperatures. Aquaculture Research 47 (11): 3593-3598. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12811.
Kir M, Sunar MC, Gok MG. 2019. Acute ammonia toxicity and the interactive effects of ammonia and salinity on thestandard metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 511: 734273. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734273.
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of The Republic Indonesia. 2019. Kelautan dan perikanan dalam angka. Retrieved from https://kkp.go.id/setjen/satudata/artikel/9669-kelautan-dan-perikanan-dalam-angka-2018-telah-terbit..
Laith AR and Najiah M. 2013. A. hydrophila: antimicrobial susceptibility and histopathology of iso-lates from diseased catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burcell). Aquaqulture Research and Development. 5(2) : 1-7. Doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000215.
Madani NSH, Adorian TJ, Farsani HG, Hoseinifar SH. 2018. The effects of dietary probiotic Bacilli (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) on growth performance, feed efficiency, body composition and immune parameters of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post larvae. Aquaculture Research 49 (5): 1926-1933. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13648.
Mahmud S, Ali ML, Alam MA, Rahman M, Jorgensen NOG. 2016. Effect of probiotic and sand filtration treatments on water quality and growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in earthen ponds of southern Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 28 (3): 199-212. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2016.1188339.
Matias HB, Yusoff FM, Shariff M. Azhar O. 2002. Effects of commercial microbial products on water quality in tropical shrimp culture pond. Asian Fisheries Science 15: 239-248.
Mohapatra S, Chakraborty T, Kumar V, Deboeck G, Mohanta KN. 2012. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 14: 1-26. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01301.x.
Mokhtar DM. 2017. Fish histology from cells to organs. Canada: Apple Academic Press. 239pp.
Nimrat S, Boonthai T, Vuthiphandchai V. 2011. Effects of probiotic forms, compositions of and mode of probiotic administration on rearing of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae and postlarvae. Animal Feed Science and Technology 169: 244-258. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.07.003.
Nimrat S, Suksawat S, Boonthai T, Vuthiphandchai V. 2012. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Veterinary Microbiology 159: 443-450. Doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.04.029.
[NRC] National Research Council. 1993. Nutrient Requirement of Fish. National Academic Press. Washington D. C. 273pp.
[NRC] National Research Council. 2011. Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. In: The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 376pp.
Paoixaao AEM, Santos JC, Pinto MS, Pereira DS, Ramos CE, Cerqueira RB, Navarro RD, Silva RF. 2017. Effect of commercial probiotics (Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth performance, body composition, hematology parameters, and disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Aquaculture International 25 (6): 2035-2045. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-017-0173-7.
Putra AN & Widanarni. 2015. Screening of amylolytic bacteria as candidates of probiotics in tilapia Oreochromis sp.. Research Journal of Microbiology 10: 1?13. Doi: 10.3923/jm.2015.1.13.
Putra AN, Widanarni, Utomo NBP. 2015. Growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic in diet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 14: 263?268. Doi: 10.3923/pjn.2015.263.268.
Putra AN & Romdhonah Y. 2019. Effects of dietary Bacillus NP5 and sweet potato extract on growth and digestive enzyme activity of dumbo catfish, Clarias sp.. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia 18 (1): 80-88. Doi: https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.18.1.80-88.
Rahiman KMM, Jesmi Y, Thomas AP, Hatha AM. 2010. Probiotic effect of Bacillus NL110 and Vibrio NE17 on the survival, growth performance and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Aquaculture Research 41: e120-e134. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02473.x.
Randall DJ & Tsui TKN. 2002. Ammonia toxicity in fish. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45: 17-23. Doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00227-8
Roberts R.J. 2001. Fish pathology. Edisi III. Saunders, W.B. London. Edinburgh, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Sydney, Toronto, 472 pp. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.2002.00335.x.
Sankar H, Philip B, Philip R, Singh ISB. 2017. Effect of probiotic on digestive enzyme activities and growth of cichlids, Etroplus suratensis (Pearl spot) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia). Aquaculture Nutrition 23 (4): 852-864. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12452.
Tamamdusturi R, Widanarn, Yuhana M. 2016. Administration of microencapsulated probiotic Bacillus sp. NP5 and prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide for prevention of Aeromonas hydrophila infection on Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 11: 67?76. Doi: 10.3923/jfas.2016.67.76.
Uribe C, Folch H, Enriquez R, Moran G. 2011. Innate and adaptive immunity in teleost fish: A review. Veteterina Medecine. 56: 486-503. Doi: 10.17221/3294-VETMED.
Utami DAS, Widanarni, Suprayudi MA. 2015. Quality of dried Bacillus NP5 and its effect on growth performance of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 18: 88?93. Doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2015.88.93.
Verschure L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstrate W. 2000. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Moleculer Biology Reviews: 64: 655-671. Doi: 10.1128/mmbr.64.4.655-671.2000.
Vine NG, Leukes WD, Kaiser H. 2006. Probiotic in marine larviculture. FEMS Microbiology Review 30: 404-427. Doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00017.x.
Wada S, Atami H, Kurata O, Hatai K, Kasuya K, Watanabe Y, Fukuda H. 2011. Histopathology of gill lesions of ayu Plecoglossus altivelis clinically diagnosed with ‘Boke’ Disease. Fish Pathology 46 (2): 59-61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3147/jsfp.46.59.
Wang Y-B, Tian Z-Q, Yao J-T, Li W-F. 2008. Effect of probiotics, Enteroccus faecium, on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. Aquaculture 277: 203-207. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.03.007.
Wedemeyer GA & Yasutake. 1977. Clinical methods for the assessment on the effect of environmental stress on fish health. US: U.S Fish and Wildlife service. 89p.
Widanarni, Yuniasari D, Sukenda, Ekasari J. 2010. Nursery culture performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with probiotics addition and different C/N ration under laboratory condition. Hayati Journal of Bioscience 17(3): 115-119. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4308/hjb.17.3.115 .
Widanarni, Yuhana M, Muhamad A. 2014. Bacillus NP5 improves growth performance and resistance against infectious myonecrosis virus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Ilmu Kelautan 19: 211?218. Doi: https://doi.org/10.14710/ik.ijms.19.4.211-218.
Xiong J, Dai W, Li L. 2016. Advances, challenges, and direction in shrimp disease control: the guidelines from an ecological perspective. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol 100: 6947-6954. Doi: 10.1007/s00253-016-7679-1.
Yang XP, Wang SM, Zhang DW, and Zhou LX. 2011. Isolation and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of an Aerobic Heterotrophic Nitrifying–Denitrifying Bacterium, Bacillus subtilis A1. Bioresource Technology. 102 : 854-862. Doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.007.
Yu M-C, Li Z-J, Lin H-Z,Wen G-L, Ma S. 2009. Effects of dietary medicinal herbs and Bacillus on survival, growth, body composition, and digestive enzyme activity of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture International 17: 377-384. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-008-9209-3.
Yusoff FM, Banerjee S, Khatoon H, Shariff M. 2011. Biological approaches in management of nitrogenous compound in aquaculture systems. Dynamic Biochemistry, Process Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 5 (1):21-31.
Zhang X, Yang W, Wu H, Gong X, Li A. 2014. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a clonal lineage of Aeromonas hydrophila caused motile Aeromonas septicemia outbreaks in pond-cultured cyprinid fish in an epidemic area in central China. Aquaculture 432: 1-6. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.04.017.
Zhang H, Sun Z, Liu B, Xuan Y, Jiang M, Pan Y, Zhang Y, Gong Y, Lu D, Kumar D, Hu X, Cao G, Xue R, Gong C. 2016. Dynamic changes of microbial communitirs in Litopenaeus vannamei culture and the effects of environment factors. Aquaculture 455: 97-108. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.01.011.
Zhao C, Zhu J, Hu J, Dong X, Sun L, Zhang X, Miao S. 2019. Effects of dietary Bacillus pumilus on growth performance, innate immunity and digestive enzyme of giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Aquaculture Nutrition 25 (3): 712-720. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12894
Zhou X-X, Wang Y-B, Li W-F. 2009. Effect of probiotic on larvae shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) based on water quality, survival rate, and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture 287: 349-353. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.10.046.
Zokaeifar H, Babaei N, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Balcazar JL. 2014. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains n the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 36: 68-74. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.007.
Zorriehzahra MJ, Delshad ST, Adel M, Tiwari R, Karthik K, Dharma K. Lazado CC. 2016. Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review. veterinary quarterly 36: 228-241. Doi: 10.1080/01652176.2016.1172132.

Most read articles by the same author(s)