Ecology and microhabitat model of long-tongued fruit bat Macroglossus minimus (Chiroptera: Pteropididae) in karst ecosystem of Klapanunggal, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

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ANDRIO A. WIBOWO
ADI BASUKRIADI
ERWIN NURDIN
GREGORIOUS BENHARD

Abstract

Abstract. Wibowo AA, Basukriadi A, Nurdin E, Benhard G. 2022. Ecology and microhabitat model of long-tongued fruit bat Macroglossus minimus (Chiroptera: Pteropididae) in karst ecosystem of Klapanunggal, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Intl J Trop Drylands 6: 11-15. Karst ecosystem is an important habitat for Chiroptera, including the long-tongued fruit bat Macroglossus minimus (E.Geoffroy, 1810) that feeds on nectar. While Klapanunggal is a karst ecosystem located in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Klapanunggal has potential Chiroptera habitat. Here, this study aims to assess and model microhabitat covariates that contribute to the density of M. minimus in Klapanunggal. The sampling sites in Klapanunggal karst covered forest, plantation, and settlement sites. Measured microhabitat covariates including tree covariates (canopy covers, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index/NDVI, diversity, height), air humidity, distance to a river, and distance to a cave. The microhabitat model was developed and measured using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The result shows a high density of M. minimus was observed in plantation site (13.96 inds./100 m2, 95%CI: 4-23 inds./100 m2), followed by the forest (7.13 inds./100 m2, 95%CI: 1-14 inds./100 m2), and settlement sites (4.7 inds./100 m2, 95%CI: 1-10 inds./100 m2). Based on AIC values, the best model explaining the microhabitat covariates that have positive effects on the density of M. minimus were tree diversity and NDVI. While humidity and distance to river covariates have negative effects. Density of M. minimus was positively correlated with increase in tree diversity (AIC= 14.73, r= 0.93) and NDVI (AIC= 22.09, r= 0.18) values. The limiting factors of M. minimus populations were high air humidity (AIC= 2.85, r= 0.99) and increase in distance to river (AIC= 20.85, r= 0.46). To conclude, the conservation of M. minimus particularly the karst ecosystem should emphasize increasing tree diversity.

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