Abstract. Arsa IGBA, Lalel HJD, Pollo R. 2019. Proximate composition and aroma quality of five aromatic upland-rice accessions from Sumba Barat Daya District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Trop Drylands 3: 35-40. This research aimed to know the proximate composition and aroma quality of five aromatic upland-rice accessions from South West Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara Province and their correlation with the physical and chemical properties of the soil taken from the planting area of each accession. The five accessions are ACC-04, ACC-05, ACC-06, ACC-08, and ACC-09. Proximate composition analysis of each aromatic upland-rice accession was carried out by method recommended by AOAC (1970) to determine the water content, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the rice. The rice aroma score was determined by a sensory test. Analysis of physical and chemical characters of soil was done on a composited soil taken from planting area of each aromatic upland-rice accession at the time of harvest. The results showed that ACC-04 had the highest ash content, AC-09 had the highest fat content and protein contents, and ACC-06 showed the highest carbohydrate content of rice. Furthermore, the best aroma quality of rice based on aroma score and 2-AP content was shown by, respectively, ACC-06 and ACC-05. There was no significant correlation between proximate composition and aroma quality with any component of environmental factors, thus, they were more likely to be determined by genetic factors.