The landlords, the peasant, and the retention basin: Local political ecology of water management in the small island of Semau, Kupang, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

PANTORO TRI KUSWARDONO
I WAYAN MUDITA
DAVID B.W. PANDIE

Abstract

  • Kuswardono PT, Mudita IW, Pandie DBW. 2021. The landlords, the peasant, and the retention basin: Local political ecology of water management in the small island of Semau, Kupang, Indonesia. Intl J Trop Drylands 5: 12-19. Freshwater is the most fundamental issue in small islands because small islands have a very small catchment area and a low water retention capacity. To ensure water availability for domestic and agriculture purposes, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has built hundreds of retention basins in all islands in East Nusa Tenggara Province from 1985 until recent times. In the small island of Semau where the study is undertaken, the availability of more than 24 retention basins did not solve freshwater problem. Inequality of distribution and usage of water from retention basin has become latent issues for more than 20 years. Underwater provision program of GoI, all of small retention basin management were handed over to a local community to become common pool resources (CPR) of the community. However, retention basin as CPR is not happening. Using the Social-Ecological System Framework (SESF), the study found that one of the Governance components of SESF, property rights, is problematic in achieving CPR. Informants from 5 villages interviewed and involved in focused group discussions consistently mentioned the word landlord in stories of water conflict, sabotage, and exclusion of access to water. The word landlord implied a tenurial or property rights system. A landlord had the traditional rights as a land custodian of the retention basin and all resources on his lands. The findings suggested that further investigation of the tenurial system and its transformation was needed whenever a vital construction such as retention basins would occur. In the past, the landlord would wisely distribute land and water as social goods so each person living in his ancestral land would not suffer from hunger. The construction of new retention basins could transform the roles of a landlord from a land custodian into a land-owner and transform common-pool resources into private goods.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Ali, A., Yazar, A., Abdul Aal, A., Oweis, T., & Hayek, P. (2010). Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment. Agricultural Water Management, 98(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.08.002
Armitage, D. (2005). Adaptive Capacity and Community-Based Natural Resource Management. Environmental Management, 35(6), 703–715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0076-z
Ataupah, H. (1995). Land Tenure di Daerah Aliran Sungai Mina. Kupang: NTT Watershed Management Planning Project.
Balai Wilayah Sungai Nusa Tenggara II. (n.d.). SISDA BWSNT2 | Dashboard. Retrieved August 15, 2018, from Sistem Informasi Sumber Daya Air website: http://sisda.bwsnt2.org/index.php/embung_kecil/kabupaten/1
Berkes, F., & Folke, C. (1994). Linking Social and Ecological Systems for Resilience and Sustainability. Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics.
Blaikie, P. (2006). Is Small Really Beautiful? Community-based Natural Resource Management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development, 34(11), 1942–1957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.023
Boelens, R., Hoogesteger, J., Swyngedouw, E., Vos, J., & Wester, P. (2016). Hydrosocial territories: A political ecology perspective. Water International, 41(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2016.1134898
BPS Kabupaten Kupang. (2019). Kabupaten Kupang Dalam Angka 2019. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Kupang.
Bree, R., & Galagher, G. (2016). Using Microsoft Excel to code and thematically analyse qualitative data: Asimple, cost-effective approach. AISHE-J, 8(2).
Bunganaen, W. (2013). ANALISIS KINERJA EMBUNG OELOMIN DI KABUPATEN KUPANG. 14.
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Tradition. London: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Falkland, A., & Custodio, E. (1991). Hydrology and water resources of small islands: A practical guide: a contribution to the International Hydrological Programme, IHP-III, Project 4.6. Paris: Unesco.
Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2010). Mixed methods research: Merging theory with practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Holling, C. S. (2001). Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems. Ecosystems, 4(5), 390–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5
Hormat, G., & Heo, M. (2015). Profil Sistem Sumber Daya Di Desa Uiboa, Desa Uitiuh Tuan, Desa Batuinan, dan Desa Uitiuh Ana Di Pulau Semau. Perkumpulan Pikul.
Jocom, H., D Kameo, D., Utami, I., & Kristijanto, A. Ign. (2016). Air dan Konflik: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 14(1), 51. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.14.1.51-61
Kaho, N. R. (2019). Laporan Bentang Lahan Pulau Semau [Laporan Kajian]. Kupang: Geng Motor Imut, CIS Timor, Perkumpulan Pikul, Kupang Batanam, GEF-SGP Phase VI.
Kerr, J. (2007). Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory. International Journal of the Commons, I(1), 89–109.
Kompas Cyber Kompas Cybermedia. (2017, March 15). Jokowi Didesak Bangun 3.000 Embung di NTT. Retrieved August 21, 2018, from KOMPAS.com website: https://properti.kompas.com/read/2017/03/15/090000621/jokowi.didesak.bangun.3.000.embung.di.ntt
McGinnis, M. D., & Ostrom, E. (2014a). Social-ecological system framework: Initial changes and continuing challenges. Ecology and Society, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06387-190230
McGinnis, M. D., & Ostrom, E. (2014b). Social-ecological system framework: Initial changes and continuing challenges. Ecology and Society, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06387-190230
N. Narayanasamy. (2009). Participatory Rural Appraisal, Principles, Methods and Application. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India PvtLtd.
Notoatmojo, B., & Rivai, R. (2001). Optimasi Pengembangan Embung di Indonesia. The Winners, 2(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.21512/tw.v2i1.3795
Pradhan, D., Ancev, T., Drynan, R., & Harris, M. (2011). Management of Water Reservoirs (Embungs) in West Timor, Indonesia. Water Resources Management, 25(1), 339–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-010-9702-0
Ratumakin, P. A. K. L., Kuswardono, P. T., Heo, M. J., & Weo, Y. U. P. (2016). Pengetahuan Lokal dalam Keberlanjutan Pengelolaan Air. Kupang: Perkumpulan Pikul.
Ribot, J. C., & Peluso, N. L. (2003). A Theory of Access*. Rural Sociology, 68(2), 153–181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2003.tb00133.x
Solomon, S. (Ed.). (2007). Climate change 2007: The physical science basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge?; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Swyngedouw, E. (2009). The Political Economy and Political Ecology of the Hydro-Social Cycle. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 142(1), 56–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1936-704X.2009.00054.x
Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Triastono, J., & Lidjang, I. (2007). SCOPING STUDY: PEMANFAATAN EMBUNG DI PULAU TIMOR. Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian Pertaniaan Dan Peternakan Dalam Sistem Usaha Tani Lahan Kering. Presented at the Komunikasi Hasil-hasil Penelitian Pertaniaan Dan Peternakan dalam Sistem Usaha Tani Lahan Kering, Kupang, Indonesia.
UU no 1 tahun 2014. Undang-undang Pesisir dan Kelautan. , Pub. L. No. 1/2014.Vohland, K., & Barry, B. (2009). A review of in situ rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices modifying landscape functions in African drylands. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 131(3–4), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.01.010