Antioxidant potential of ginger extract on metals (lead, cadmium, and boron) induced oxidative stress in maize plant




Abstract. Ezeonu CS, Tatah SV, Imo C, Yakubu OE, Garba QH, Arowora K, Umaru IJ, Abah MA, Abu MS, Yohanna ER, Timothy M. 2022. Antioxidant potential of ginger extract on metals (lead, cadmium, and boron) induced oxidative stress in maize plant. Asian J Trop Biotechnol 19: 45-51. Plants have a high potential to accumulate heavy metals, which may have a toxic effect on them. These heavy metals can induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in plants which may affect their physiological activities. This research aimed to examine ginger extract’s antioxidant potential in treating metals (lead, cadmium, and boron) in contaminated soil in which maize was cultured. Maize seedlings were grown in pots containing soil (A-H) induced with lead acetate, cadmium, and boron (1 g each) and treated with 1 g of ginger extract, simulated for 40 days. The uptake and distribution of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, boron) with possible induction of oxidative stress alteration in the activity of the antioxidant defense system of the maize plants were determined. The inhibitory effect of ginger against lead, cadmium, boron induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings was also determined, and the percentage inhibition showed an increase in extract concentration of ginger. From the result, maize seedlings grown from 10-40 days with 1 g of lead, 1 g of cadmium, and 1 g of boron showed significant (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidation in the whole maize plant compared to the control. However, ginger extract caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the accumulation of lipid peroxide concentration in the seedlings. In addition, there was a marked increase in antioxidant enzyme activities in the lead, cadmium, and boron-contaminated soil. The result also showed that lead, cadmium, and boron-induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings could be ameliorated by ginger extract and antioxidant enzymes, which are the biomarkers for metal-induced oxidative stress in maize plants. The result obtained showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in SOD activity in maize seedlings grown in pots B and G (15.95±1.34 nmol/mg and 15.85±0.49 nmol/mg, respectively); B and C (10.70±1.14 nmol/mg and 10.95±0.07 nmol/mg, respectively) and A and H on the soils contaminated with 1 g lead, cadmium, and boron, respectively. SOD activity was observed to be higher in pots E (28.47±1.65 nmol/mg) and H (21.29±1.12 nmol/mg) (boron contaminated soil) when compared with lead and cadmium contaminated soils. The study has clearly shown that lead, cadmium, and boron toxicity induces oxidative stress in maize plants which the ginger antioxidant effect could reduce.


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