Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land

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ZAHLUL IKHSAN

Abstract

Abstract. Ikhsan Z. 2022. Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land. Biodiversitas 23: 2262-2269. Environmental factors can affect biodiversity in a landscape. Differences in microclimate conditions can affect the presence of parasitic Hymenoptera in rice cultivation. This study investigated: (i) Landscape structure and microclimate on tidal swamp rice; (ii) Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera; (iii) Correlation of parasitic Hymenoptera with their landscapes and microclimate. Determination of sample plots was made using the line transect method in rice cultivation in four tidal swampland landscapes. Data analysis was performed by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), the Margalef species richness index (D), and the Pielou species evenness index. The relationship between parasitic Hymenoptera and environmental factors was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the diversity index (H'), three rice fields in complex landscapes had a higher diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species than simple landscapes. The presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera on tidal swamp rice can be affected by the landscape's structure and microclimates. Humidity is the microclimate variable that most influences the abundance of Parasitic Hymenoptera in the tidal swamp landscape. Good microclimate management is needed to increase the presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera in tidal swamp rice.

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