Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan




Abstract. Asghar A, Qadeer O, Mushtaq S, Maalik S, Majeed W, Bano N, Nargis S. 2022. Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan. Biodiversitas 23: 2047-2053. Insects are the most important creatures on earth due to their multifunctional role in the environment by providing different services such as biological indicators, decomposers, pollinators, scavengers, pests, and predators agroecosystem. However, with time due to anthropogenic activities such as environmental pollution, industrial waste, and the use of effluents for agriculture, insect fauna has been facing a dramatic threat to their diversity, particularly in most polluted areas. The present study was designed to find insects diversity variation under polluted environments (heavy metals) in agriculture fields having brassica and Rice crops. Two different sites, the tannery and non-tannery areas were selected to sample insects. The total number of insects found in tannery area fields were 2195 and 3753 from the non-tannery area. The abundance of Melanoplus bivittatus (Say, 1825) was highest in the non-tannery area, and Acrida exaltata (Walker, 1859) was highest in tannery area fields. From the tannery area and non-tannery area, the maximum abundance of 32% and 37% were found for order orthoptera. The cadmium concentration in tannery rice crops was 0.626 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.315 ppm. The cadmium concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.115 ppm for rice and 0.101 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.1231 ppm for rice and 0.104 ppm for brassica insects. The lead concentration in tannery areas of rice crops was 0.637 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.672 ppm. The lead concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.324 ppm for rice and 0.267 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.214 ppm for rice and 0.266 ppm for brassica insects. The diversity and richness were recorded at 3.11 and 3.525 for rice and 3.124 and 3.913 for brassica fields. The species maximum was seen in the non-tannery area, and less abundance was recorded in the tannery area. It is further suggested that preventive measures should be taken to protect insect diversity from balancing nature's ecological balance.


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