Acclimation study of Smilax nageliana A.DC., a climber species endemic to East Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Sofiah S, Hakim L, Indriyani S, Robiansyah I. 2022. Acclimation study of Smilax nageliana A.DC., a climber species endemic to East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 4082-4089. Smilax L. species, popularly known in Indonesia as Canar, belong to the family Smilacaceae and have been used in folk medicine as a tonic against rheumatism and as anti-syphilitic. Smilax nageliana A.DC is an endemic plant to East Java, Indonesia which is only distributed in Ranu Darungan, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTSNP), and Mt. Kawi. In the effort for its conservation and sustainable management, information regarding the adaptation of S. nageliana to a new environment is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the acclimation of S. nageliana under three different treatments, namely (i) in hood application in a greenhouse; (ii) in its natural habitat under shade; (iii) in natural habitat in the open area. Each treatment had ten replications. Survival and growth performance were observed for six months in terms of survival rates, number of new shoots, shoot length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content. Environment factors were also measured including solar intensity, temperature, humidity and water content. Data were analyzed using a two-way Anova. The principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to determine the relationships between environmental components and S. nageliana acclimation performance. The result showed that S. nageliana had a one hundred percent survival rate in the hood application and natural habitat with shade. The best growth performances (i.e., shoot length, the number of leaves, shoots per root and chlorophyll content) were achieved under the hood application. The average temperature was quite influential on the first component (PC1), followed by solar intensity while water affected the second component (PC2). The findings of this study suggest that where sunlight/solar intensity and humidity were controlled, it gave the most optimal results for acclimation of S. nageliana.


Ahmed HA, Yu-Xin T, Qi-Chang Y. 2020. Optimal Control of Environmental Conditions Affecting Lettuce Plant Growth in a Controlled Environment with Artifificial Lighting: A Review. South African Journal Botany 130:75–89.
Chowdhur, M, Kiraga S, Islam MN, Ali M, Reza MN. Lee WH, Chung SO. Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Growth and Glucosinolate Content of Kale Grown in a Plant Factory. Foods 2021, 10, 1524. 10.3390/foods10071524
Do Vale PAA, de Oliveira Júnior JB , da Silva Costa FH , Scherwinski-Pereira JE. 2019. Height and number of shoots on the survival and development of micropropagated bamboo plantlets during pre-acclimatization. Pesq. Agropec. Trop., Goiânia: 49
Greer D H, Halligan E A. 2001. Photosynthetic and fluorescence light responses for kiwifruit leaves at different stages of development on vines grown at two different photon flux densities. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28:373-382.
Grange RI, Hand DW. 1987. A review of the effects of atmospheric humidity on the growth of horticultural crops. Journal Horticultural Science 62:125-134
Kumar 2015. In Vitro Callus Induction Of Smilax Wightii A.Dc An Endemic Medicinal Plant. Kong Res J 2(1) : 97-101.
La G, Fang P, Teng, Y, Li Y, Lin X. 2009. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the Glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese Kale (Brassica Alboglabra L.) Journal of Zhejiang Universityv Sciience 10:454–464.
Palhares D & Silveira CES. 2005. Anatomy of rhizome of Smilax goyazana A. DC. (Smilacaceae). - Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants 8: 52-62.
Palhares D, Tine MA, Vinha D, Silveira CES and Zaidan LBP. 2009. Studies on the Seeds of Smilax goyazana A.DC. (Smilacaceae). Phyton 79:117-130.
Park SG, Matsumoto MA. 2018. Study on the effffects of light conditions on the longevity and characteristics of Daphniphyllum macropodum leaves. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture 63:15–19.
Pogge FL & Bearce BC. 1989. Germinating common and cat greenbrier. Tree Planters’ Notes 40: 34-37.
Martin AR, Soares AN, Bombo AB, Fidelis A, Novembre ADL, da Glória BA. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae). 2012. International Journal Tropical Biology. 60 (1): 495-504.
Singh SK, Reddy VR, Sharma MP, Agnihotri R. 2015. Dynamics of plant nutrients, utilization and uptake, and soil microbial community in crops under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. In Nutrient Use Effificiency: Springer India: New Delhi, India.
Soares AN, NovembreII ADLC, Martins AR, Piedade SMS, Appezzato-da-Gloria B. 2011. Propagation studies in Smilax fluminensis Steud. (Smilacaceae) Ciência Rural Santa Maria 41(10):1762-1768.
Sulistyangsih LD. 2019. The Systematic Study of Smilacaceae in Java Based on Morphology and Molecular Character. [Dissertation]]. Universitas Indonesia. Depok.
Sulistyaningsih LD, Abinawanto, Salamah A, and Ardiyani M. 2019. Phylogenetic relationship of Smilacaceae of java based on morphological characters; Proseeding of International Conference on Biology and Applied Science (ICOBAS) UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Malang, 20 March 2019.
Sui XL, Mao SL, Wang LH, Zhang BX and Zhang ZX. 2012. Effect of low light on the characteristics of photosynthesis and chlorophyll a flfluorescence during leaf development of sweet pepper. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 11:1633–1643.
Weng XY, Xu HX, Jiang DA. 2005. Characteristics of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and expression of key enzymes in photosynthesis during leaf senescence in rice plant. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47:560-566.
Yoo SD, Greer DH, Laing W A, McManus M T. 2003. Changes in photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid composition in leaves of white clover at different developmental stages. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41:887-893.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>