Short Communication: Determination of crude oil degradation efficiency of biofilm producing bacteria isolated from oil contaminated site




Abstract. Khoo DH, Shivanand P, Taha H. 2022. Short Communication: Determination of crude oil degradation efficiency of biofilm producing bacteria isolated from oil contaminated site. Biodiversitas 23: 4138-4143. Microbes have gained much attention for their application in the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated areas, and biofilm producing bacteria are considered potential candidates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to screen six oil degrading bacterial strains for their ability to form biofilm, and to measure the crude oil degradation efficiency of selected strains. It was found that only two strains, Micrococcus sp. UBDBH15 and Pseudomonas sp. UBDBH26 were categorized as strong biofilm producers, with the latter showing the highest amount of biofilm formed. Under the conditions tested, Pseudomonas sp. UBDBH26 was also found to have the highest degradation rate (0.0047 g/day) with a significant degradation of 7.07 ± 3.02 and 11.38 ± 2.93 % of crude oil after 7 and 14 days respectively. Micrococcus sp. UBDBH15 had a lower rate of degradation (0.0033 g/day), resulting in a non-significant degradation. However, in comparison with a non-biofilm producer, Enterobacter sp. UBDBH06, this study suggested that biofilm might enhance the degradation of oil, but further studies are needed to confirm this assumption.


Bisht S, Pandey P, Bhargava B, Sharma S, Kumar, Sharma KD. 2015. Bioremediation of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology. Brazilian Journal of Micrbiology 46: 7–21. DOI: 10.1590/S1517-838246120131354
Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial Biofilms: A common cause of persistent infections. Science 284: 1318–1322. DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5418.1318
Das N, Chandran P. 2011. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants: an overview. Biotechnology Research International 2011: 941810. DOI: 10.4061/2011/941810
Das TT, Gohel HR, Panchal MR, Ghosh SK, Braganza VJ. 2014. Determination of crude oil degradation efficiency of glass biofilm of isolated bacterium and fungus. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3: 67–69
Davies DG, Parsek MR, Pearson JP, Iglewski BH, Costerton JW, Greenberg EP. 1998. The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 280: 295–298. DOI: 10.1126/science.280.5361.295
Edwards SJ, Kjellerup BV. 2013. Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97: 9909–9921. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-5216-z
Hamoudi-Belarbi L, Hamoudi S, Belkacemi K, Nouri L, Bendifallah L, Khodja M. 2018. Bioremediation of polluted soil sites with crude oil hydrocarbons using carrot peel waste. Environments 5: 124. DOI: 10.3390/environments5110124
Kawo A, Bacha HY. 2016. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from soil compost in Kano, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 9: 108–117. DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v9i1.17
Khoo DH, Shivanand P, Taha H. 2021. Bacterial biofilms and bioremediation. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 41: 528-535.
Kirmusaoglu S. 2019. The methods for detection of biofilm and screening antibiofilm activity of agents. In S. Kirmusaoglu (ed.), Antimicrobials, antibiotic resistance, antibiofilm strategies and activity methods. IntechOpen, UK, 99-113. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84411
Koo H, Allan RN, Howlin RP, Hall-Stoodley L, Stoodley P. 2017. Trageting microbial biofilms: current and prospective therapeutic strategies. Nature Review Microbiology 15: 740–755. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.99
Kumar KS, Dhanarani TS, Thamaraiselvi K. 2013. Utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons by Micrococcus and Streptococcus sps. isolated from contaminated site. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research 3: 71–78.
Latha R, Kalaivani R. 2012. Bacterial degradation of crude oil by gravimetric analysis. Advances in Applied Science Research 3: 2789–2795.
Lima SD, Oliveira AF, Golin R, Lopes VCP, Caixeta DS, Lima ZM, Morais EB. 2019. Isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from gas station leaking-contaminated groundwater in the Southern Amazon, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 80: 354–361. DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.208611
Meliani A, Bensoltane A. 2014. Enhancement of hydrocarbons degradation by use of Pseudomonas biosurfactants and biofilms. Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology 5: 168. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7463.1000168
Olowomofe TO, Oluyege JO, Aderiye BI, Oluwole OA. 2019. Degradation of poly aromatic fractions of crude oil and detection of catabolic genes in hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from Agbabu bitumen sediments in Ondo State. AIMS Microbiology 5: 308–323. DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2019.4.308
O’Toole GA. 2011. Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay. Journal of Visualized Experiments 47: e2437. DOI: 10.3791/2437
Prakash B, Veeregowda BM, Krishnappa G. 2003. Biofilms: a survival strategy of bacteria. Current Science 85: 1299–1307
Ra T, Zhao Y, Zheng M. 2019. Comparative study on the petroleum crude oil degradation potential of microbes from petroleum-contaminated soil and non-contaminated soil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 16: 7127–7136. DOI: 10.1007/s13762-018-2114-z
Radó J, Kaszab E, Petrovics T, Pászti J, Kriszt B, Szoboszlay S. 2017. Characterization of environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa using multilocus sequence typing scheme. Journal of Medical Microbiology 66: 1457–1466. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000589
Sharma D, Misba L, Khan AU. 2019. Antibiotics versus biofilm: an emerging battleground in microbial communities. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 8: 76. DOI: 10.1186/s13756-019-0533-3
Simões M, Simões LC, Vieira MJ. 2009. Species association increases biofilm resistance to chemical and mechanical treatments. Water Research 43: 229–237. DOI: j.watres.2008.10.010
Singh R, Paul D, Jain RK. 2006. Biofilms?: implications in bioremediation. Trends in Microbiology 14: 389–397. DOI: j.tim.2006.07.001
Subathra MK, Immanuel G, Suresh AH. 2013. Isolation and identification of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from Ennore creek. Bioinformation 9: 150–157.
Taha H, Shivanand P, Khoo DH, Mohammad YH, Matussin NBA, Metali F. 2020. Identification of culturable petroleum-degrading bacteria and fungi from petroleum-contaminated sites in Brunei Darussalam. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 55: 1542-1547. DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2020.1826238
Thapa B, KC AK, Ghimire A. 2012. A review on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soil. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology 8: 164–170. DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v8i1.6056
Ukiwe LN, Egereonu UU, Njoku PC, Nwoko CIA, Allinor JI. 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation techniques?: a review. International Journal of Chemistry 5: 43–55. DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v5n4p43
Wimpenny J, Manz W, Szewzyk U. 2000. Heterogeneity in biofilms. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 24: 661–671. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00565.x
Xu X, Liu W, Tian S, Wang W, Qi Q, Jiang P, Gao X, Li F, Li H, Yu H. 2018. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria for the remediation of oil pollution under aerobic conditions: a perspective analysis. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 2885. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02885