Occurrence of heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd in Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia caseolaris in the coastal area of Subang, West Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Hewindati YT, Suhardi DA, Zuhairi FR, Diki, Yuliana E. 2022. Occurrence of heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd in Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia caseolaris in the coastal area of Subang, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 6471-6479. The high urbanization in coastal areas is one of the causes of mangrove ecosystems experiencing pressure due to water pollution by anthropogenic activities, especially through heavy metals pollution. As vegetation grows in transitional areas, mangroves have a different structure and physiology from plants in the land area, so they have a high resistance to the pressure of heavy metal pollution. The measurement was carried out on the content of heavy metals Cadmium (Cd), Cuprum (Cu), and Plumbum (Pb) in Subang, West Java. Our study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of heavy metal found in the roots, leaves, and trunks of species Rhizophora apiculata Blume and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler. Sampling was conducted in the rivers at three locations: Langensari, Blanakan, and the estuary area. The concentration of heavy metals in each organ was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) technique was used to obtain a more detailed description of the accumulation pattern of heavy metals. The mapping was carried out using a two-dimensional plot containing 18 observation samples, nine variable combinations of heavy metal content in three organs, and the location of observations and plant species. Both plant species had a high accumulation absorption of heavy metals but with different characteristics. S. caseolaris determined the accumulation characteristics of Cu and Cd in the three observation areas with a total contribution of 60.3%. Meanwhile, R. apiculata significantly contributed to determining the characteristics of the accumulation of Cu and Pb in the entire observation area, with its contribution of 15.5%. However, the highest average accumulation of Pb was found in the R. apiculata leaves in Blanakan and the estuary area, which was 16.054 mg/kg and 12.769 mg/kg, respectively.


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