Morphological diversity of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) in Sumbawa Island, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia




Abstract. Nikmatullah A, Nairfana I, Dewi SM, Sarjan M. 2023. Morphological diversity of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) in Sumbawa Island, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 4597-4608. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Indian jujube or Bidara) is an evergreen shrub or small tree tolerant to drought, salinity, and high-temperature stress with various ethnobotanical and ecological values. However, minimal information is available on its diversity in Indonesia. The current study aims to assess the morphological diversity of Z. mauritiana accessions collected from 18 locations in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. The plant's qualitative and quantitative morphological attributes were collected, including size, L/W ratio and color of leaf and fruit, length, and occurrence of spine and stem surface. The results revealed significant differences in some observed characters among the accessions. Petiole length varied from 0.6 to 1.4 cm, leaf length ranged from 2.9 to 5.0 cm, leaf width ranged from 2.6 to 4.2 cm, and leaf L/W ratio was 1.07 to 1.46. All samples of Z. mauritiana in Sumbawa Island had a spine that occurred evenly in every node, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 cm. Most accessions had single spinal per node except two accessions, which had double horn-shaped spines in each node. The quantitative characters for fruits also varied, either orbicular or oblong. The fruit length ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 cm, the fruit width varied between 1.1 to 1.8 cm, and the fruit L/W ratio was between 1.0 and 1.2. There were also morphological differences in leaf color, fruit color, shape, and taste (sweet, sour, or bitter). The finding suggests some degree of morphological diversity of Z. mauritiana in Sumbawa, as shown by quantitative and qualitative attributes of the leaf, thorn, and fruit.


Ahmad I, Nafees M, Ashraf I, Ahmad B, Qureshi R. 2021. Fruit morphological attributes to assess genetic diversity in jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) germplasm of Bahawalpur. Pure Appl Biol 5 (4): 921-926. DOI: 10.19045/bspab.2016.50116.
Ani N, Rohyani IS, Ustadz M. 2018. Pengetahuan masyarakat tentang jenis tumbuhan obat di kawasan taman wisata alam Madapangga Sumbawa. Jurnal Pijar MIPA 13 (2): 160-166. DOI: 10.29303/jpm.v13i2.751. [Indonesian]
Ardiansyah, Rita RRND. 2019. Identifikasi tumbuhan obat di zona khusus Taman Nasional Gunung Tambora Kabupaten Dompu. Jurnal Silva Samalas 2 (2): 99-108. DOI: 10.33394/jss.v2i2.3661. [Indonesian]
Ashraf A, Sarfraz RA, Anwar F, Shaukat AS, Alkharfy KM. 2015. Chemical composition and biological activities of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana L. native to Pakistan. Pak J Bot 47 (1): 367-376.
Askur RA, Ganning A. 2021. Utilization of Bidara leaf (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) extract as a natural larvicide. Urban Health 3 (1): 103-107. DOI: 10.32382/uh.v3i1.2477.
Delphine DN, Marie MP, Abdoulaye, Mahamat, Valerie NN. 2017. Ethnological studies on melliferous plants of the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Chad. J Med Plant Stud 5 (3): 193-198.
Dhileepan K. 2017. Biological control of Ziziphus mauritiana (Rhamnaceae): Feasibility, prospective agents and research gaps. Ann Appl Biol 170 (3): 287-300. DOI: 10.1111/aab.12338.
Dilaga SH, Sofyan I, Hermansyah, Dahlanuddin, Sutaryono YA. 2017. Improving livestock productivity, quality and safety to respond to the increasing demand from upper and middle-class consumers: Contribution of communal grazing land on providing feeds for large ruminants and its advantages for local community and government of Sumbawa District; The 5th International Seminar of Animal Nutrition and Feed Sciences, Mataram-West Nusa Tenggara, 7-9 November 2017. [Indonesian]
Etesami H, Maheshwari DK. 2018. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) with multiple plant growth promoting traits in stress agriculture: Action mechanisms and future prospects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 156: 225-246. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.03.013.
Gupta N. 2018. Morphological and physico-chemical characterization of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) genotypes in semi-arid zone of Punjab. Intl J Chem Stud 6 (5): 2353-2356.
Huang J, Zhang C, Zhao X, Fei Z, Wan K, Zhang Z, Pang X, Yin X, Bai Y, Sun X, Gao L, Li R, Zhang J, Li X. 2016. The jujube genom provides insights into genome evolution and the domestication of sweetness/acidity taste in fruit trees. PLoS Genet 12 (12): 1006433. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006433.
Jaelani FNAM, Zaidan UH, Rahim MBH, Gani SSA, Halmi MIE. 2020. Evaluation of constituents and physicochemical properties of malaysian underutilized Ziziphus mauritiana (Bidara) for nutraceutical potential. Intl J Fruit Sci 20 (3): 394-402. DOI: 10.1080/15538362.2019.164145.
Keputusan Menteri PUPR (Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat). 2016. Pola Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air Wilayah Sungai Sumbawa. Kementrian PUPR, Jakarta. [Indonesian]
Kim SH, Nam JI, Kim CW. 2019. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits to identify different chinese jujube cultivars. Plant Breed Biotechnol 7 (3): 175-185. DOI: 10.9787/PBB.2019.7.3.175.
Kurniawan E, Dwi SDJ, Zulkifli L. 2019. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak methanol batang Bidara laut terhadap bakteri pathogen. Jurnal Biologi Tropis 19: 61-69. DOI: 10.29303/jbt.v19i1.1040. [Indonesian]
Kurniawan H, Pujiono E. 2018. Allometri biomassa atas tanah Ziziphus mauritiana untuk pendugaan biomassa di pulau Timor. J For Res 3: 59-74. DOI: 10.20886/jpkf.2019.3.2.59-74. [Indonesian]
Li Y, Zou D, Shrestha N, Xu X, Wan Q, Jia W, Wang Z. 2020. Spatiotemporal variation in leaf size and shape in response to climate. J Plant Ecol 13 (1): 87-96. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz053.
Mirheidari F, Khadivi A, Saeidifar A, Moradi Y. 2022. Selection of superior genotypes of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) as revealed by fruit-related traits. Food Sci Nutr 10 (3): 903-913. DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2721.
Muhammad N, Luo Z, Yang M, Liu Z, Liu M. 2022. The nutritional, medicinal, and drought-resistance properties of Ziziphus Mill. make it an important candidate for alleviating food insecurity in arid regions - A case of Pakistan. Horticulturae 8 (10): 867. DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8100867.
Nairfana I, Nikmatullah A, Sarjan M, Tandeang A. 2022. Variability of secondary metabolites from leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana obtained from different locations in Sumbawa, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23 (9): 4948-4957. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230965.
Nyanga LK, Gadaga TH, Nout MJR, Smid EJ, Boekhout T, Zwietering MH. 2013. Nutritive value of Masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits from Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe. Food Chem 138 (1): 168-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.016.
Prakash O, Usmani S, Singh R, Singh N, Gupta A, Ved A. 2021. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, and therapeutic attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.: A comprehensive review. Phytother Res 35 (1): 63-77. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6769.
Rathore M. 2009. Nutrient content of important fruit trees from arid zone of Rajasthan. J Hortic For 1 (7): 103-108. DOI: 10.5897/JHF.9000079.
Razi MF, Anwar R, Basra SMA, Khan MM, Khan IA. 2013. Morphological characterization of leaves and fruit of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) germplasm in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pak J Agric Sci 50 (2): 211-216.
Saqib Z, Mahmood A, Malik RN, Mahmood A, Syed JH, Ahmad T. 2014. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Kotli Sattian, Rawalpindi District, Pakistan. J Etnopharmacol 151 (2): 820-828. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.034.
Sareen A, Sharma V, Gupta RC. 2023. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in wild Ziziphus species from Northwest India using SSR marker technique. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 21: 4 DOI: 10.1186/s43141-022-00458-6.
Sharif N, Jaskani MJ, Naqvi SA, Awan FS. 2019. Exploitation of diversity in domesticated and wild ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) germplasm for conservation and breeding in Pakistan. Sci Hortic 249: 228-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2019.01.041.
Shiddieqy MI, Tiesnamurti B, Widiawati Y, Saptati RA. 2021. The Role of communal pasture as a source of cattle feed: A case in Lar Badi, Sumbawa. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 648: 012075. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/648/1/012075.
Shrivastava P, Kumar R. 2015. Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22 (2): 123-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.12.001.
Singh A, Meghwal PR. 2020. Socio-economic and horticultural potential of Ziziphus species in arid regions of Rajasthan India. Genet Resour Crop Evol 67: 1301-1313. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-020-00891-x.
Soraya S, Sukara E, Sinaga E. 2022. Identification of chemical compounds in Ziziphus mauritiana fruit juice by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. Intl J Biol Phys Chem Stud 4 (2): 11-19. DOI: 10.32996/ijbpcs.2022.4.2.2.
Stadlmayr B, Charrondiere UR, Eisenwagen S, Jamnadass R, Kehlenbeck K. 2013. Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from Sub?Saharan Africa. J Sci Food Agric 93 (11): 2627-2636. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6196.
Stoyanov HP. 2015. Spike morphology and variation in spike parameters in species Triticum× savovii HP St. Scientific Papers - Series A. Agronomy 58: 315-324.
Talukdar MD, Imdad SK, Rahman S, Akhtaruzzaman M, Samad AMD. 2014. A comparative study on the nutritional quality of 5 (five) varieties of Bangladeshi jujubes (Zizyphus mauritiana). Am J Nutr Food Sci 1 (2): 32-36. DOI: 10.12966/ajnfs.04.03.2014.
Uddin N, Ali N, Nisar M, Liu M, Muhammad N, Rahman IU. 2021. SSR-based population structure, molecular diversity and identity cards of Ziziphus species from Pakistan and China. Genet Resour Crop Evol 68: 2391-2409. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-021-01138-z.
Vir SO, Kartar S, Gowthami R, Neelam S. 2019. Morphological characterization of Ber germplasm. Indian J Hortic 76 (2): 219-225. 10.5958/0974-0112.2019.00034.3.
Wiriadinata H, Girmansyah D, Hunter JM, Hoover WS, Kartawinata K. 2013. Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 13 (5): 391?404.
Wright IJ, Dong N, Maire V, Prentice IC, Westoby M, Díaz S, Wilf P. 2017. Global climatic drivers of leaf size. Science 357 (6354): 917-921. DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4760.
Zhao G, Cui X, Sun J, Li T, Wang QI, Ye X, Fan B. 2021. Analysis of the distribution pattern of Chinese Ziziphus jujuba under climate change based on optimized biomod2 and MaxEnt models. Ecol Indic 132: 108256. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.108256.
Zohriah S, Ayu IW, Suhada I, Sumiyanti, Sukmawati D. 2021. Studi etnobotani tumbuhan obat di desa Songkar, Kecamatan Moyo Utara, Sumbawa Besar. Prosiding Seminar Nasional IPPeMas 2020 Inovasi Hasil Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat dalam Menunjang Era Industri 4.0. Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, Universitas Samawa, Sumbawa Besar. [Indonesian]