Identification of the pest outbreak in the coastal mangrove ecosystem of Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia




Abstract. Harmonis, Haqiqi MT, Fahroni MFA, Jefry, Gunawan S, Sekedang MA, Rahmat D, Azhar NF, Putra MOPS, Kusuma FD, Hapsari MT, Muhammad FA, Diana R, Sudarmadji T, Amirta R, Ariyanto, Saud OR, Sofyan FPM, Fajriansyah, Asngari AMS, Bulo YS, Salman I, Rizaldi R, Lubis KM. 2024. Identification of the pest outbreak in the coastal mangrove ecosystem of Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 25: 829-835. Mangrove ecosystems are considered the most essential areas in the wetland since they sequester carbon more efficiently than terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, they have received significant attention as a nature-based solution to achieve the Naturally Determined Contributions in the commitment to global climate change mitigation. Currently, the degradation of mangroves has been linked to serious threats, including pest outbreaks. Our primary objective was to assess the pest outbreaks that occurred in the coastal mangroves of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. This study was conducted in two areas in Tanjung (R1 and R2) and one area in Pulau (R3). A total of 19 observation plots with a size of 10 × 10 m2 were made. The water quality was further measured to identify the natural conditions affecting the outbreaks. In the present study, it was found that significant disturbance of the mangrove plants occurred due to invasions by Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin, 1854 and Sphaeroma terebrans Spence Bate, 1866. The dangerous attack from S. terebrans has only been found at the R1 site, where we found environmental conditions such as high dissolved oxygen (DO), high total dissolved solids (TDS), and high salinity. In this area, it could affect the death of adult Avicennia alba Blume and Sonneratia alba Sm. The results obtained from this study are expected to provide preliminary data to design the best management practices in order to enhance the effectiveness of the mangrove rehabilitation strategy in the Mahakam Delta.


Abbott RT, Morris PA. 1995. A Field Guide To Shells: Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies (Vol. 3). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. USA.
Alongi DM. 2014. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. Annu Rev Mar Sci 6: 195-219. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135020.
Arifanti VB, Sidik F, Mulyanto B, Susilowati A, Wahyuni T, Yuniarti N, Aminah A, Suita E, Karlina E, Suharti S, Turjaman M. 2022. Challenges and strategies for sustainable mangrove management in Indonesia: A review. Forests 13 (5): 695. DOI: 10.3390/f13050695.
Basyuni M, Al Habib A, Slamet B, Sulistiyono N, Putri LAP, Bimantara Y, Yusraini E, Lesmana I. 2019. Assessment of one-year mangrove reforestation using Rhizophora apiculata seedlings in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 260 (1): 012114. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012114.
Brooks RA, Bell SS. 2005. A multivariate study of mangrove morphology (Rhizophora mangle) using both above and below-water plant architecture. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65 (3): 440-448. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.06.019.
Carnell PE, Palacios MM, Waryszak P, Trevathan-Tackett SM, Masqué P, Macreadie PI. 2022. Blue carbon drawdown by restored mangrove forests improves with age. J Environ Manag 306: 114301. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114301.
Chen J, Gao M, Chen G, Zhu H, Ye Y. 2022. Biomass accumulation and organic carbon stocks of Kandelia obovata mangrove vegetation under different simulated sea levels. Acta Oceanologica Sin 41: 78-86. DOI: 10.1007/s13131-021-1891-2.
Chen J, Zhai G, Chen G, Wu J, Liu J, Xue Z, Ye Y. 2023. Differences in ecosystem organic carbon stocks due to species selection and site elevation of restored mangrove forests. Catena 226: 107089. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2023.107089.
Chowdhury MQ, Sarker SK, Sultana R, Datta A, Saimun MSR, Rashid AM. 2023. Synergistic effects of climate and salinity on radial growth of Excoecaria agallocha L. in the Sundarbans world heritage mangrove ecosystem. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 280: 108181. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2022.108181.
Cui L, Sun H, Du X, Feng W, Wang Y, Zhang J, Jiang J. 2021. Dynamics of labile soil organic carbon during the development of mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Ecol Indic 129: 107875. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107875.
Diba F, Wanamukti B, Adha K, Ann CC. 2021. Keanekaragaman spesies cacing penggerek kayu laut dari hutan mangrove setapok Besar Kota Singkawang. Jurnal Enggano 6 (1): 62-79. DOI: 10.31186/jenggano.6.1.62-79. [Indonesian]
Hamilton SE, Casey D. 2016. Creation of a high spatio?temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC?21). Glob Ecol Biogeogr 25 (6): 729-738. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12449.
Haneda FN, Suheri M. 2018. Hama mangrove di Kecamatan Batu Ampar, Kabupaten Kubu Raya, Kalimantan Barat Mangrove Pests at Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika 9: 16-23. DOI: 10.29244/j-siltrop.9.1.16-23. [Indonesian]
Ilman M, Dargusch P, Dart P. 2016. A historical analysis of the drivers of loss and degradation of Indonesia’s mangroves. Land Use Pol 54: 448-459. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.03.010.
Jin M, Guo X, Zhang R, Qu W, Gao B, Zeng R. 2019. Diversities and potential biogeochemical impacts of mangrove soil viruses. Microbiome 7: 1-15. DOI: 10.1186/s40168-019-0675-9.
Kida M, Fujitake N. 2020. Organic carbon stabilization mechanisms in mangrove soils: a review. Forests 11 (9): 981. DOI: 10.3390/f11090981.
Lee IO, Noh J, Kim B, Kwon I, Kim H, Kwon BO, Peng Y, Hu Z, Khim JS. 2023. Food web dynamics in the mangrove ecosystem of the Pearl River Estuary surrounded by megacities. Mar Pollut Bull 189: 114747. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114747.
Lelana NE, Utami S, Darmawan UW, Nuroniah HS, Haneda NF, Darwiati W, Anggraeni I. 2022. Bagworms in Indonesian plantation forests: Species composition, pest status, and factors that contribute to outbreaks. Diversity 14 (6): 471. DOI: 10.3390/d14060471.
Liu GH, Liu DQ, Wang P, Chen QQ, Che JM, Wang JP, Li WJ, Zhou SG. 2022. Temperature drives the assembly of Bacillus community in mangrove ecosystem. Sci Total Environ 846: 157496. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157496.
Luthfi OM, Safitri E, Soegianto A. 2020. Infestation of biofoulings (Balanus sp. and Littoraria sp.) on mangrove Rhizophora sp. and Avicennia sp. at Gadingrejo, Pasuruan, Indonesia. Ecol Environ Conserv 26: 176-180.
Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 2019. Mangrove rehabilitation in the context of sustainable ecosystem management. Workshop on mangrove forest management at the edge of the ecosystem: Portraits of conservation and restoration efforts in Indonesia. Purwokerto, 19th August 2019. [Indonesian]
Mohti A, Parlan I, Omar H. 2014. Research and development activities towards sustainable management of mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia. Mangrove Ecosyst Asia: Status Challenges Manag Strag 373-390. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8582-7_17.
Nakhawa AD, Chellapan A, Akhilesh KV, Bhendekar S, Kumar R, Vase VK, Zacharia PU. 2023. Investigation of teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Cramer, 1777) outbreak on mangrove ecosystem in Mumbai metropolitan region using multi-spectral satellite data. Reg Stud Mar Sci 60: 102828. DOI: 10.1016/j.rsma.2023.102828.
Nie S, Mo S, Gao T, Yan B, Shen P, Kashif M, Zhang Z, Li J, Jiang C. 2023. Coupling effects of nitrate reduction and sulfur oxidation in a subtropical marine mangrove ecosystem with Spartina alterniflora invasion. Sci Total Environ 862: 160930. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161829.
Polidoro BA, Carpenter KE, Collins L, Duke NC, Ellison AM, Ellison JC, Farnsworth EJ, Fernando ES, Kathiresan K, Koedam NE, Livingstone SR. 2010. The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PloS One 5 (4): 10095. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010095.
Priosambodo D, Alam M, Al-Anshari M, Putra AW. 2019. Species composition and structure of mangrove in Tamo Rocky Cliff Beach Majene (West Sulawesi, Indonesia). IOP Conf Ser: J Physics 1341: 022021. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1341/2/022021.
Quevedo JMD, Lukman KM, Ulumuddin YI, Uchiyama Y, Kohsaka R. 2023. Applying the DPSIR framework to qualitatively assess the globally important mangrove ecosystems of Indonesia: A review towards evidence-based policymaking approaches. Mar Pol 147: 105354. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105354.
Ragavan P, Mohan PM, Saxena A, Jayaraj RSC, Ravichandran K, Saxena M. 2018. Mangrove floristics of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands: critical review and current scenario. Mar Biodivers 48: 1291-1311. DOI: 10.1007/s12526-016-0581-3.
Ragavan P, Saxena A, Jayaraj RSC, Mohan PM, Ravichandran K, Saravanan S, Vijayaraghavan A. 2016. A review of the mangrove floristics of India. Taiwania 61 (3): 224-242. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2016.61.224.
Risnasari I, Batubara R, Nuryawan A, Lubis FA, Firnadi O, Maulana MA. 2021. Deterioration of wood exposed to mangrove ecosystem. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 782 (3): 032031. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/782/3/032031.
Setyadi G, Pribadi R, Wijayanti DP, Sugianto DN. 2021. Mangrove diversity and community structure of Mimika District, Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22 (8): 3562-3570. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220857.
Sidik F, Supriyanto B, Krisnawati H, Muttaqin MZ. 2018. Mangrove conservation for climate change mitigation in Indonesia. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 9 (5): 529. DOI: 10.1002/wcc.529.
Swangjang K, Panishkan K. 2021. Assessment of factors that influence carbon storage: An important ecosystem service provided by mangrove forests. Heliyon 7 (12): 08620. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08620.
Talley TS, Crooks JA. 2007. Habitat Conversion Associated with Bioeroding Marine Isopods. Academic Press, New York, USA. DOI: 10.1016/S1875-306X(07)80011-6.
Teka O, Houessou LG, Djossa BA, Bachmann Y, Oumorou M, Sinsin B. 2019. Mangroves in Benin, West Africa: Threats, uses and conservation opportunities. Environ Dev Sustain 21: 1153-1169. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0075-x.
Thatoi H, Samantaray D, Das SK. 2016. The genus Avicennia, a pioneer group of dominant mangrove plant species with potential medicinal values: a review. Front Life Sci 9 (4): 267-291. DOI: 10.1080/21553769.2016.1235619.
Thiri M, Yang Y. 2022. Review on possible factors for outbreak of wood boring isopod, Sphaeroma spp. which causes destructive impact on mangrove forest in China. Open J Ecol 12 (3): 211-235. DOI: 10.4236/oje.2022.123013.
Wang JF, Zhou HZ, Jiang B, Jiang HM, Cai ZX, He T, Bai H, Zhu H, He ZW, Wang LL. 2023. Controlling heavy metals pollution is vital for the restoration of carbon and nitrogen transformation function of mangrove ecosystems in the Greater Bay Area, China. J Water Process Eng 53: 103745. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2023.103745.
Xin K, Xie Z, Zhong C, Sheng N, Gao C, Xiao X. 2020. Damage caused by Sphaeroma to mangrove forests in Hainan, Dongzhaigang, China. J Coast Res 36 (6): 1197-1203. DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00135.1.
Zhang J, Yang X, Wang Z, Zhang T, Liu X. 2021. Remote sensing based spatial-temporal monitoring of the changes in coastline mangrove forests in China over the last 40 years. Remote Sens 13 (10): 1986. DOI: 10.3390/rs13101986.
Zhao P, Sanganyado E, Wang T, Sun Z, Jiang Z, Zeng M, Huang Z, Li Y, Li P, Bi R, Liu W. 2022. Accumulation of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in plants and fishes in restored mangrove ecosystems in South China. Sci Total Environ 838: 155964. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155964.
Zhong C, Li T, Bi R, Sanganyado E, Huang J, Jiang S, Zhang Z, Du H. 2023. A systematic overview, trends and global perspectives on blue carbon: A bibliometric study (2003-2021). Ecol Indic 148: 110063. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.110063.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>