Species composition and structure of degraded mangrove vegetation in the Air Telang Protected Forest, South Sumatra, Indonesia




Abstract. Eddy S, Ridho MR, Iskandar I, Mulyana A. 2019. Species composition and structure of degraded mangrove vegetation in the Air Telang Protected Forest, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 20: 2119-2127. Air Telang Protected Forest (ATPF) is one of the protected forests in the coastal area of South Sumatra, Indonesia which is around 12,660.9 hectares. This area is strategic because it borders directly with the Bangka Strait and adjacent to Sembilang National Park making it easy to access by the community. Various anthropogenic activities in the region such as residential, farming, agriculture, aquaculture, port and timber harvesting have led to degradation and loss of primary mangrove forest. This study aims to analyze the species composition and community structure of mangrove vegetation in the ATPF. The data were collected through observations at several point-centered samplings which were used to analyze the species composition and community structure of the vegetation and the physicochemical conditions of the environment. The species composition of this area consists of 20 species belonging to 14 families. The dominant species of tree, sapling and seedling stages are Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata and Acrostichum aureum, respectively. Overall species diversity index in this region is classified as very low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.73. Cluster analysis showed three types of vegetation structures in this region, namely Cyperus-Acrostichum type (shrub vegetation), Acrostichum-Rhizophora type (secondary forests) and Nypa-Avicennia (primary forests).


Akpakpan AE, Akpabio UD, Obot IB. 2012. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and soda pulping of Nypa fruticans frond and petiole. Elixir Appl Chem 45: 7664–7668.
Allison LE. 1960. Wet-combustion apparatus and procedure for organic and inorganic carbon in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 24 (1): 36–40.
Alongi DM. 2009. The Energetics of Mangrove Forests. Queensland: Springer Science, Queensland.
Arrijani, Setiadi D, Guhardja E, Qayim I. 2006. Vegetation analysis of the upstream Cianjur Watershets in Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park’s. Biodiversitas 7 (2): 147–153.
Ball MC. 1980. Patterns of succession in a mangrove forest of Southern Florida. Oecologia 44: 226–235.
Barbour MG, Burk JH, Pitts WD, Gilliam FS, Schwartz MW. 1999. Terrestrial Plant Ecology, 3rd edition. California: Benjamin Cummings, California.
Berger U, Rivera-Monroy VH, Doyle TW, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Duke NC, Fontalvo-Herazo ML, Hildenbrandt H, Koedam N, Mehlig U, Piou C, Twilley RR. 2008. Advances and limitations of individual-based models to analyze and predict dynamics of mangrove forests: a review. Aquat Bot 89: 260–274.
Biswas SR, Khan MdSI, Mallik AU. 2012. Invaders’ control on post-disturbance succession in coastal mangroves. J Plant Ecol 5 (2): 157–166.
Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis RR, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N. 2008. Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Aquat Bot 89: 251–259.
Bosire JO, Kaino JJ, Olagoke AO, Mwihaki LM, Ogendi GM, Kairo JG, Berger U, Macharia D. 2014. Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates of peri-urban mangroves in Kenya. Biogeosciences 11: 2623–2634.
Bryan JE, Shearman PL, Asner GP, Knapp DE, Aoro G, Lokes B. 2013. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei. Plos One 8 (7): 1–7.
Chakraborty SK. 2013. Interactions of environmental variables determining the biodiversity of coastal-mangrove ecosystem of West Bengal, India. Ecoscan 3: 251–265.
Clements FE. 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 242, Washington.
Cunha-Lignon M, Coelho-Jr. C, Almeida R, Menghini R, Correa F, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Cintr?n-Molero G, Dahdouh-Guebas F. 2009. Mangrove forest and sedimentary processes on the south coast of Sao Paulo State (Brazil). J Coast Res 56: 405–409.
DasGupta R, Shaw R. 2013. Cumulative impacts of human interventions and climate change on mangrove ecosystems of South and Southeast Asia: an overview. J Ecosyst 2013: 1–15.
Dat PT, Yoshino K. 2013. Comparing mangrove forest management in Hai Phong City, Vietnam towards sustainable aquaculture. Procedia Environ Sci 17: 109–118.
Department of Forestry and Plantation of the Banyuasin District. 2010. Reports on Disturbances Identification in Air Telang Protected Forest Area. Banyuasin: Department of Forestry and Plantation of the Banyuasin District, Banyuasin. [Indonesian]
Dharmawan IWS, Siregar CA. 2008. Soil carbon and carbon estimation of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. stand at Ciasem, Purwakarta. J Penelit Hutan Konserv Alam 5 (4): 317–328.
Di Nitto DD, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Kairo JG, Decleir H, Koedam N. 2008. Digital terrain modelling to investigate the effects of sea level rise on mangrove propagule establishment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 356: 175–188.
Djohan TS. 2007. Mangrove Succession in Segara Anakan, Cilacap. Berk Ilm Biol 6 (1): 53–62.
Djufri, Wardiah, Muchlisin ZA. 2016. Plants diversity of the deforested peat-swamp forest of Tripa, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17 (1): 372–376.
Donders TH, Gorissen PM, Sangiorgi F, Cremer H, Wagner-Cremer F, McGee V. 2008. Three-hundred-year hydrological changes in a subtropical estuary, Rookery Bay (Florida): human impact versus natural variability. Geochem Geophys Geosystem 9 (7): 1–15.
Eddy S, Iskandar I, Ridho MR, Mulyana A. 2017. Land cover changes in the Air Telang Protected Forest, South Sumatra, Indonesia (1989-2013). Biodiversitas 18 (4): 1538–1545.
Eugene NN, Frédéric AB, Jacques E, Din N, Gordon A, Bilong P. 2016. Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils within the mangrove forest of the Rio del Rey Estuary: Case study – Bamusso (South-West Cameroon). Afr J Environ Sci Technol 10 (3): 58–66.
Fatoyinbo TE, Simard M, Washington-Allen RA, Shugart HH. 2008. Landscape-scale extent, height, biomass, and carbon estimation of Mozambique’s mangrove forests with Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data. J Geophys Res 113: 1–13.
Gandaseca S, Wahab NLA, Pazi AMM, Rosli N, Zaki PH. 2016. Comparison of water quality status of disturbed and undisturbed mangrove forest at Awat-Awat Lawas Sarawak. Open J For 6: 14–18.
Gee GW, Bauder JW. 1986. Particle-Size Analysis. In: Klute A (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1, Physical and Mineral Methods, Second Edition. Madison: American Society of Agronomy- Soil Science Society of America, Madison. pp. 383–411.
Giesen W, Wulffraat S, Zieren M, Scholten L. 2007. Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia. Thailand: Dharmasarn Co., Ltd., Thailand.
Gilman E, Ellison J, Coleman R. 2007. Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea-level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position. Environ Monit Assess 124: 105–130.
Giri C, Long J, Abbas S, Murali RM, Qamer FM, Pengre B, Thau D. 2014. Distribution and dynamic of mangrove forests of South Asia. J Environ Manag 2014: 1–11.
Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland L, Masek J, Duke N. 2011. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20: 154–159.
Giri C, Zhu Z, Tieszen LL, Singh A, Gillette S, Kelmelis JA. 2008. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (1975–2005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia. J Biogeogr 35: 519–528.
Guoqing L, Xiaoan W, Hua G, Zhihong Z. 2008. Effects of ecological factors on plant communities of Ziwuling Mountain, Shaanxi Province, China. Acta Ecol Sin 28 (6): 2463–2471.
Iftekhar MS, Saenger P. 2008. Vegetation dynamics in the Bangladesh Sundarbans mangroves: a review of forest inventories. Wetl Ecol Manag 16:291–312.
Ilman M, Wibisono ITC, Suryadiputra INM. 2011. State of the Art Information on Mangrove Ecosystems in Indonesia. Bogor: Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme, Bogor.
Jones TG, Ratsimba HR, Ravaoarinorotsihoarana L, Cripps G, Bey A. 2014. Ecological variability and carbon stock estimates of mangrove ecosystems in Northwestern Madagascar. For 5: 177–205.
Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Bosire J, Koedam N. 2001. Restoration and management of mangrove systems ? a lesson for and from the East African region. S Afr J Bot 67: 383–389.
Kauffman JB, Heider C, Norfolk J, Payton F. 2014. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic. Ecol Appl 24 (3): 518–527.
Kent M, Coker P. 1992. Vegetation Description and Analysis: A Practical Approach. England: John Wiley and Sons, England.
Komiyama A. 2014. Conservation of mangrove ecosystems through the eyes of a production ecologist. Rev Agric Sci 2: 11-20.
Krebs CJ. 1989. Ecological Methodology. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, New York.
Laulikitnont P. 2014. Evaluation of Mangrove Ecosystem Restoration Success in Southeast Asia [Thesis]. San Francisco, California: University of San Francisco.
Lee SY, Dunn RJK, Young RA, Connolly RM, Dale PER, Dehayr R, Lemckert CJ, Mckinnon S, Powell B, Teasdale PR, Welsh DT. 2006. Impact of urbanization on coastal wetland structure and function. Austral Ecol 31: 149–163.
Li MS, Mao LJ, Shen WJ, Liu SQ, Wei AS. 2013. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in Southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 130: 111–120.
Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song K, Sofawi B. 2014. Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia. Sci World J 2014: 1–12.
Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Mukherjee N, Sutherland WJ, Khan MNI, Berger U, Schmitz N, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. 2014. Using expert knowledge and modeling to de?ne mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery. Ecol Evol 4 (11): 2247–2262.
Mukhlisi, Sidiyasa K. 2014. Vegetation structure and species composition of mangrove forest in mangrove information centre of Berau, East Kalimantan. For Rehabil J 2 (1): 25–37.
Nagelkerken I, Blaber SJM, Bouillon S, Green P, Haywood M, Kirton LG, Meynecke J-O, Pawlik J, Penrose HM, Sasekumar A, Somerfield PJ. 2008. The habitat of mangrove for terestrial and marine fauna: a review. Aquat Bot 89: 155–185.
Neelo J, Teketay D, Kashe K, Masamba W. 2015. Stand sturcture, diversity and regeneration status of woody species in open and exclosed dry woodland sites around Molapo farming areas of the Okavango Delta, Northeastern Botswana. Open J For 5: 313–328.
Nfotabong-Atheull A, Din N, Dahdouh-Guebas F. 2013. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of mangrove vegetation structure and dynamics in a peri-urban setting of Douala (Cameroon): an approach using air-borne imagery. Estuaries Coast 36: 1181–1192.
Odum EP. 1998. Fundamentals of Ecology. Georgia: Saunders College Publishing, Georgia.
Okpiliya FI, Effiong EB, Eni I, Eja IE. 2013. Mangrove forest ecosystem utilization and depletion: implication for occupational changes in Calabar South, Nigeria. Eur J Sustain Dev 2 (1): 149–162.
Onrizal, Kusmana C. 2008. Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra. Biodiversitas 9 (1): 25–29.
Onrizal, Mansor M. 2016. Status of coastal forests of the Northern Sumatra in 2005 (after 2004’s tsunami catastrophe). Biodiversitas 17 (1): 44–54.
Peng Y, Chen G, Tian G, Yang X. 2009. Niches of plant populations in mangrove reserve of Qi’ao Island, Pearl River Estuary. Acta Ecol Sin 29: 357–361.
Satyanarayana B, Mulder S, Jayatissa LP, Dahdouh-Guebas F. 2013. Are the mangroves in the Galle-Unawatuna area (Sri Lanka) at risk? A social-ecological approach involving local stakeholders for a better conservation policy. Ocean Coast Manag 71: 225–237.
Setyawan AD, Indrowuryatno, Wiryanto, Winarno K, Susilowati A. 2005. Mangrove plants in coastal area of Central Java: 2. Floristic composition and vegetation structure. Biodiversitas 6 (3): 194-198.
Sinfuego KS, Buot IE. 2014. Mangrove zonation and utilization by the local people in Ajuy and Pedada Bays, Panay Island, Philippines. J Mar Isl Cult 3: 1–8.
Strauch AM, Cohen S, Ellmore GS. 2012. Environmental influences on the distribution of mangroves on Bahamas Island. J Wetl Ecol 6: 16–24.
Thu PM, Populus J. 2007. Status and changes of mangrove forest in Mekong Delta: case study in Tra Vinh, Vietnam. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 71: 98–109.
Walters BB, Ronnback P, Kovacs JM, Crona B, Hussain SA, Badola R, Primavera JH, Barbier E, Dahdouh-Guebas F. 2008. Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: a review. Aquat Bot 89: 220–236.
Zelen? D, Schaffers AP. 2012. Too good to be true: pitfalls of usingmean Ellenberg indicator values in vegetation analyses. J Veg Sci 23: 419–431.
Zhao FJ, Shu LF, Wang MY, Liu B, Yang LJ. 2012. In?uencing factors on early vegetation restoration in burned area of Pinus pumila – Larch forest. Acta Ecol Sin 32: 57–61.

Most read articles by the same author(s)