Direct economic benefits and human dependence toward Gunung Merapi National Park, Indonesia




Abstract. Umaya R, Hardjanto, Soekmadi R, Sunito S. 2020. Direct economic benefits and human dependence toward Gunung Merapi National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 982-993. Merapi (Java, Indonesia) is recognized as the most active volcano in Indonesia. This area has also gazetted as a national park, called Gunung Merapi National Park (GNMP), despite the existence of humans who live adjacent to the park with high dependency on its resources. The objectives of this study were to determine direct use value (DUV) and investigate human dependence toward the goods and services generated from GNMP. The research was conducted in 27 sub-villages. In total 277 respondents and 62 key informants were selected using purposive sampling and 9 times focus group discussion. The DUV was estimated using market price approach. The results of this study found that the DUV of GMNP was IDR 87,947,589,505 year-1, generated from direct benefit of grasses for animal feedstock (41.74%), sand mining (31.32%), water consumption (20.23%), fuelwood collection (3.57%), ecotourism activities (1.65%), land management for agriculture (1.48%), and orchid conservation program (0.01%). The dominance of DUV derived from grasses collection, sand mining and water consumption was highly correlated with the characteristics of sub-villages communities, influenced by the events of eruption of Merapi volcano, changes in legal status of forest function and market situations. Sub-village communities have historically developed reciprocal relationships with Merapi volcano and its surrounding ecosystem in terms of ecological, economic, and cultural aspects, and they played important roles in natural resources management of Merapi volcano. The findings of this study suggest that an important strategy for GMNP authority is by positioning sub-village communities and their norms as resource beneficiaries and partners in managing the park, highlighting that their existence should not be neglected.


Anna Z, Saputra DS. 2017. Economic valuation of whale shark tourism in Cenderawasih Bay National Park, Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (3): 1026-1034
Belizal E, Lavigne F, Hadmoko DS, Degeai JP, Dipayana GA, Mutaqin BW, Marfai MA, Coquet M, Le Mauff B , Robin AK, Vidal C, Cholik N, Aisyah N. 2013. Rain-triggered lahars following the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia: A major risk. Journal of Vulcanology and Geothermal Research 261 : 330-347
[BTNGM] Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi. 2017. Rencana Induk Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Penyangga Taman Nasional Gunung. [Indonesian]
[BTNGM] Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi. 2018. Desa Mawa Cara Negara Mawa Tata: Rumput, merumput dan Perumput di Merapi. [Indonesian]

Daily GC, Polasky S, Goldstein J, Kareiva PM, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ricketts TH, Salzman J, and Shallenberger R. 2009. Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Front Ecol Environ 7 (1): 21-28
Dharmawan, AH. 2007. Dinamika Sosio-Ekologi Pedesaan: Perspektif dan Pertautan Keilmuan Ekologi Manusia, Sosiologi Lingkkungan dan Ekologi Politik. Jurnal Sodality: 01 (01): 1-40
Dewanta AS. 2010. Valuation of Mount Merapi National Park: A Travel Cost Analysis. Economic Journal of Emerging Market 2 (1):79-88
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. Chapter 24: Mountain Systems of the Current States and Trend Assessment as part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
Gleick PH. 1996. Basic Water Requirement for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs. Water International, 21 : 83-92
Helida A, Zuhud EAM, Hardjanto, Purwanto Y, Hikmat A. 2015. The Etnography of Kerinci. Komunitas. International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture. Komunitas 7 (2) 2015: 283-296
Hudayana B. 1994. Adaptasi Masyarakat Terhadap Bencana Alam. Studi Kasus Bencana Alam Merapi. Yogyakarta. Fakultas Sastra Universitas Gadjah Mada
Iskandar J, Iskandar BS, Partasasmita R. 2016. Responses to Environmental and Socio-economic changes in the Karangwangi traditional agroforestry system, South Cianjur, West Java. Biodiversitas 17 (1) : 332-341
Iskandar BS, Iskandar J, Wibawa HA, Partasasmita R. 2017. Farmers and Tumpangsari: Case study in Palintang Hamlet, Cipanjalu Village, Bandung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (3) : 1135-1149
[IUCN] International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. World Commission on Protected Areas. 2004. Guidelines for Planning and Managing Mountain Protected Areas. Synthesised and edited by Hamilton, Lawrence and McMillan, Linda. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.xi + 83pp.
Ives JD, Messerli B, Spiess E. 2004. Mountains of the world: aglobal priorities. In: Messerli B, Ives JD (eds) Mountains of theworld: a global priority. Parthenon, New York, pp 1–15
Kuswijayanti ER, Darmawan AH, Kartodihardjo H. 2007. Krisis-krisis Sosio-Politico-Ecology di Kawasan Konservasi: Studi Ekologi Politik di Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi. Soladity: Jurnal transdisiplin sosiologi, komunikasi dan ekologi manusia: 41-66
[LAURA] Laboratorium Antropologi untuk Riset dan Aksi Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2012. Komunitas Lereng Merapi Serta Respon Terhadap Erupsi Merapi 2010. Laboratorium Antropologi untuk Riset dan Aksi Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.
Lavigne F, Thouret JC, Voight B, Suwa H, Sumaryono A. Lahars at Merapi Vulcano, Central Java: an overview. Journal of Vulcanology and Gheothermal Research 100 : 423-456
Lavigne F, De Coster B, Juvin N, Flexier F, Morin J, Sartohadi J. 2008. People’s behavior in the face of vulcanic hazards: Perspective from Javanese communities, Indonesia. Journal of Vulcanology anf Geothermal Research 172 : 273-287.
Marten GG. 2001. Human Ecology: Basic Consept of Sustainable Development. Earthscan. London and Sterling
Mcneely JA. 1994. Protected areas for 21st century: working to provide benefits to society. IUCN, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. Biodiversity and Conservation3,390-405 (1994).Received 13 February 1994; accepted 4 March 1994
Newton P, Miller DC, Ateenyi MA, Byenkya, Agrawal A. 2016. Who are forest-dependent people? A taxonomy to aid livelihood and land use decision-making in forest regions. Land Use Policy 57 (2016): 388-395.
Pearce D and Moran D. 1994. The economic value of biodiversity. IUCN. Earthscan Publication Ltd, London.
Pearce DW. 2001. The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems. Ecosystem Health. (7) 4: 21-28
erum Perhutani. 2017. Sejarah Perusahaan. /
Pranowo DS, Handojo Adi. 1985. Manusia dan Hutan: Proses Perubahan Ekologi di Lereng Gunung Merapi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
Pratt DJ and Preston L. 1995. The Economic of Mountain Resources Flows. Unasylva 195
Rambo AT. 1983. Conceptual Approaches to Human Ecology
Rizal A, Dewanti LP. 2017. Using Economic Values To Evaluate Management Options For Fish Biodiversity In The Sikakap Strait, Indonesia. Biodiversitas (18) 2: 575-581
Roslinda E, Kartikawati SM, Rabudin. 2017. Economic Valuation for Tembawang ecosystem, in Sebangau District West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (4): 1506-1516
Roslinda E. 2019. Economic Valuation of Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiverstas 20 (7): 1983-1989
Setiyani AD, de Fraitur C, Susanto RH, Duker A. 2017. Economic Valuation for Water Supply from Merapi Volcano National Park (Case Study: Kali Kuning Sub Watersheed). Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan 7 (1): 29-36.
Subandriyo. 2014 Erupsi Gunung Api Merapi 2010, Pemantauan, Penanggulangan dan Peran Masyarakat. Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi. Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi. Badan Geologi. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral
Surono M, Jousset P, Pallister J, Boichu M, Fabrizia M, Buongiorno, Budisantoso A, Rodriguez FC, Andreastuti S, Prata F, Scneider D. The 2010 explosive eruption of Java’s Merapi Vulcano – a 100 year event. Journal of Vulcanology and Gheothermal Research 100 : 121-135
Suri K. 2018. Understanding historical, cultural and religius framework of mountain communities and distarter in Nubra valley of Ladakh. International Journal of Distarter Risk Reduction 31: 504-513.
Thouret JC, Lavigne F, Kelfoun K, Bronto S. 2000. Toward a revised hazard assesment at Merapi vulcano, Central Java. Journal of Vulcanology and Gheothermal Research 100 : 479-502
Triyoga LS. 2010. Merapi dan Orang Jawa. Persepsi dan Kepercayaan. Jakarta. Indonesia.
Turner K, Georgiou S, Clark R, Brouwer R. 2004. Economic Valuation of Water Resources in Agriculture. From the sectoral to a functioal perspective of natural resource management. FAO. 2004.
Voight B, Sukhyar R, Wirakusumah AD. 2000. Introduction to the special issue on Merapi Volcano. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 100 : 1–8
Widada. 2004. Nilai Manfaat Ekonomi dan Pemanfaatan Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Bagi Masyarakat. [Desertation]. Bogor Agricultural University. [Indonesian]