Identification of active compounds and antioxidant activity of teak (Tectona grandis) leaves




Abstract. Suryanti V, Kusumaningsih T, Marliyana SD, Setyono HA, Trisnawati EW. 2020. Identification of active compounds and antioxidant activity of teak (Tectona grandis) leaves. Biodiversitas 21: 941-947. Teak (Tectona grandis) grows in tropical area and the teak wood is widely used for building construction and furniture. Young teak leaf contains red pigment and often are used for natural food coloring. The research objectives were to isolate the young teak leaf chemical compounds and to investigate their antioxidant activities. The compounds identification was carried out by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, GC-MS and LC-MS. The antioxidant activity determination was carried out by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) method. The total phenolics content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and total anthocyanins content was examined using the H-differential method. Two fractions were observed further by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, GC-MS and LC-MS. The UV-Vis spectrum of FA confirmed the presence of anthocyanins which has maximum absorbance at 208 and 492 nm. The GC-MS spectrum of fraction A (FA) revealed 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, glycerin monoacetate, glycerin diacetate and 1-eicosanol. The UV-Vis spectrum of FC also confirms the presence of anthocyanins which has maximum absorbance at 489 nm. The LC-MS spectrum of fraction C (FC) shows anthocyanins, namely malvidin-3-o- (6-o-acetyl)-5-o-diglucoside. The FA and FC teak leaf fractions have strong antioxidant activities as their IC50 values are less than 50 ppm. Total phenolic of teak leaf extract was 6.17 mg GAE/g and total anthocyanins of teak leaf extract were 67.5 mg/L.


Arief II, Suryati T, Afiyah DN, Wardhani DP. 2014. Physicochemical and organoleptic of beef sausages with teak leaf extract (Tectona grandis) addition as preservative and natural dye. International Food Research Journal 21 (5): 2033-2042.
Baharuddin A, Aisyah, Saokani J, Risnah IA. 2015. Karakterisasi zat warna daun jati (Tectona grandis) fraksi metanol: n-heksana sebagai photosensitizer pada dye sensitized solar cell. Chimica et Natura Acta 3 (1): 37-41. [Indonesian]
De La Cruz AA, Hilbert G, Riviere C, Mengin V, Ollat N, Bordenave L, Decroocq S, Delaunay J, Delrot S, Merillon J, Monti J, Gomes E, Richard T. 2012. Anthocyanin identification and composition of wild Vitis spp. Accessions by using LC-MS and LC-NMR. Analytica Chimica Acta 732: 145-152.
Doymaz I, Karasu S. 2018. Effect of air temperature on drying kinetics, colour changes and total phenolic content of sage leaves (Salvia officinalis). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 10 (3): 269-276.
Du H, Wu J, Ji K, Zeng Q, Bhuiya M, Su S, Shu Q, Ren H, Liu Z, Wang L. 2015. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia. Journal of Experimental Botany 66 (21): 6563-6577.
Ghany TMA. 2015. Safe food additives: a review. Journal of Chemical and Biological Research 32 (1): 402-437.
Han F, Ju Y, Ruan X, Zhao X, Yue X, Zhuang X, Qin M, Fang Y. 2017. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidi Foex) in China. Food & Nutrition Reasearch 61 (1): 1-11.
Hanani E, Mun’im A, Sekarini R. 2005. Identifikasi senyawa antioksidan dalam spons Callyspongia sp dari kepulauan seribu. Majalah Ilmu Kefarmasian 2 (3): 127-133. [Indonesian]
Hermawati Y, Rofieq A, Wahyono P. 2015. Influence of citric acid concentrate to characteristic of teak leaf anthocyanin extract with its stability test in ice cream. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Biologi 2015. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. 21 Maret 2015. [Indonesian]
Kopa TK, Tchinda AT, Tala MF, Zofou D, Jumbam R, Wabo HK, Titanji VPK, Frederich M, Tan N, Tane P. 2014. Antiplasmodial anthraquinones and hemisynthetic derivatives from the leaves of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae). Phytochemistry Letters 8: 41-45.
Kutlu T, Durmaz G, Ates B, Yilmaz I, Cetin MS. 2011. Antioxidant properties of different extracts of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.). Turk J Biol 35: 103-110.
Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE. 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International 88 (5): 1269-1278.
Lismawenning D, Yulianto A, Sulhadi. 2013. Aplikasi ekstrak daun jati (Tectona grandis) sebagai film kaca non permanen. Unnes Physics Journal 2 (1): 51-57. [Indonesian]
Lung JKS dan Destiani DP. 2017. Uji aktivitas antioksidan vitamin A, C, E dengan metode DPPH. Farmaka 15 (1): 53-62.
Murukan G, Murugan K. 2017. Composition of purified anthocyanin isolated from teak and it’s in vitro antioxidant activity. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 9 (9): 258-266.
Murukan G, Murugan K. 2018a. Hepatoprotective activity of purified anthocyanin from teak leaves against CCL-4 induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats and its analysis by LC-MS/MS. Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences 9(2): 5244-5260.
Murukan G, Murugan K. 2018b. Antimutagenic efficacy of purified anthocyanin from the in vitro culture of teak leaves on b marrow cells of mice. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 9 (3): 38-46.
Ogunmefun OT, Ekundayo EA, Akharaiyi FC, Ewhenodere D. 2017. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of Tectona grandis L.f. teak leaves on microorganisms isolated from decayed food samples. Journal Tropical Plant Research 4 (3): 376-382.
Qadariyah L, Mahfud M, Sulistiawati E, Swastika P. 2018. Natural dye extraction from teak leves (Tectona grandis) using ultrasound assisted extraction method for dyeing on cotton fabric. MATEC Web of Conferences 156: 1-4.
Rajuri A, Rao KNV, Banji D, Chaithanya RK. 2010. A review on Tectona grandis Linn: chemistry and medicinal uses (famili: Verbenaceace). Herbal Tech Industry 1: 6-9.
Saharjo BH, Nurhayati AD. 2006. Domination and composition structure change at hemic peat natural regeneration following burning; a case study in Pelalawan, Riau Province. Biodiversitas 7: 154-158.
Salazar-Aranda R, Perez-Lopez LA, Lopez-Arroyo, Alanis-Garza BA, de Torres NW. 2011. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of plants from northeast of mexico. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011: 1-6.