Morphological variations of mangosteen fruits from Luzon and Mindanao Islands, the Philippines




Abstract. Berame J, Lawsin N, Miguel F, Chavez J. 2020. Morphological variations of mangosteen fruits from Luzon and Mindanao Islands, the Philippines. Biodiversitas 21: 3094-3100. Luzon and Mindanao islands in the Philippines are the important mangosteen producing provinces whose growing areas are scattered on these two islands. With this, mangosteen variability was detected based on field fruit collections in summer of 2019. The morphological variations of mangosteen fruits were observed and collected in Quezon Province in Luzon and Davao-Zamboanga Provinces in Mindanao based on the total number of 175 mangosteen trees. The main objectives of the research were to find out the morphological variations of mangosteen fruits and using Tomato Analyzer 4.0 to determine the morphological characters that can be used to differentiate mangosteen accessions in the Philippines. The variables include fruit shape index (external and internal), curve fruit shape index, asymmetry, internal eccentricity and weight of the ripe fruits. The results show that fruit characters like ellipsoidal, circular, rectangular, lobe shape, size, pericarp area, and pericarp thickness. are highly resemblance particularly in its fruit shape characters, and even sharing a similar taste of ripe fruits. Data revealed that Garcinia mangostana shared a similar character with Garcinia malaccensis even though they are from different geographical areas. Based on the morphological variations and characters, the two varieties of mangosteen fruits in the Philippines, G. mangostana and G. malaccensis, are so closely related that they could be combined together as one species as identified in the morphological analysis of this study.


Bookstein, F. (1982). Foundations of morphometrics. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:451-470.
Borba, E., Funch, R., Ribeiro, P., Smidt, E., Silva-Pereir, V. (2007). Demography, and genetic and morphological variability of the endangered Sophronitis sincorana (Orchidaceae ) in the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil. Plant Syst. Evol. 267:129-146.
Chandler, G., Crisp, M. (1998). Morphometric and phylogenetic analysis of the Daviesia ulicifolia complex (Fabaceae, Mirbeliae). Plant Syst. Evol. 209:93-112.
Corner, E. (1940). Wayside trees of Malaya, vol 1. Government Printing Office, Singapore.
Henderson, A. (2006). Traditional morphometrics in plant systematics and its role in palm Systematics. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151:103–111.
Klingenberg, C., Monteiro, L. (2005). Distances and directions in multidimensional shape spaces : Implications for morphometric applications. Syst. Biol. 54:678–688.
Klingenberg, C., Leamy, L., Routman, E., Cheverud, J. (2001). Genetic architecture of mandible shape in mice: Effects of quantitative trait loci analyzed by geometric morphometrics. Genetics 157:785-802.
Langlade, N., Feng, ., T. Dransfield, L. Copsey, A., Hanna, A., Thebaud, C., Bangham, A., Hudson, A., Coen, E. (2005). Evolution through genetically controlled allometry space. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:10221–10226.
Lihova, J., Marhold, K., Tribsch, A., Stuessy, T. (2004). Morphometric and AFLP re- evaluation of tetraploid Cardamine amara (Brassicaceae ) in the Mediterranean. Syst. Bot. 29:134-146.
Lorenz-Lemke, A., Muschner, V., Bonatto, S., Cervi, A., Salzano, M., Freitas, L. (2005). Phylogeographic inferences concerning evolution of Brazilian Passiflora actinia and P. elegans (Passifloraceae) based on ITS (nrDNA) variation. Ann Bot 95:799–806
Ramage, C., Sando, L., Peace, C., Carroll, B., Drew, R. (2004). Genetic diversity revealed in the apomictic fruit speciesGarciniamangostanaL. (mangosteen). Euphytica1 36:1–10, 2004. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
Richards, A. (1990). Studies inGarcinia, dioecious tropical forest trees: phenology, pollination biology and fertilization of G. hombroniana Pierre. Bot J Linn Soc 103:251–261
Rohlf, F. (1990). Morphometrics. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Systematics 21:299-316.
Te-chato, S., Lim, M. (2000). Improvement of mangosteen micro-propagation through meristematic nodular callus formation from vitro-derived leaf explants. Sci Hortic 86: 291–298.
Weber, K., Eisman, R., Morey, L., Patty, A., Sparks, J., Tausek, M., Zeng, Z. (1999). An analysis of polygenes affecting wing shape on chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 153:773-786.
Yapwattanaphun, C., Subhadrabandhu. S., Honsho, C., Yonemori, K. (2004). Phylogenetic relationship of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and several wild relatives (Garcinia spp.) revealed by ITS sequence data. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:368–373.