Morphological and anatomical characters variation of Indigofera accessions from Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Muzzazinah, Suratman, Nurmiyati, Ariani SRD. 2021. Morphological and anatomical characters variation of Indigofera accessions from Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 2104-2116. The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and anatomical character variation of Indigofera accessions from Java, Indonesia. A total of 15 accessions from three species of Indigofera were collected from centers of Batik manufacturing in Java located in the following locations: West Java (Pangandaran), Yogyakarta (Bantul, Kulonprogo), Central Java (Sragen, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar) and East Java (Tuban). There were 14 tested morphological characters based on measurement of vegetative and generative organs. Anatomical characters were observed from paradermal sections and there were 12 tested characters. Analysis of variance was performed for observed morphological and anatomical characters data in order to test the significance of variation among accessions using SPSS software. The characters' mean values then were used to perform principal component analysis and cluster analysis using PAST software. A cluster analysis was conducted by applying an Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) in order to group the accessions based on morphological and anatomical character similarity. The analysis of variance for the evaluated morphological and anatomical characters revealed highly significant differences among accessions for all of the tested characters suggesting that there was a high degree of phenotypic diversity among Indigofera accessions. Principal component analysis indicated that the first 2 components accounted for 90.72 % and 88.96 % of the total variation for morphological and anatomical data sets, respectively. Cluster analysis using morphological characters data revealed three main clusters. Four main clusters were then highlighted in cluster analysis of the anatomical character data. The grouping of the accession into clusters showed that there was no correlation between ecological habitat origin and the character diversity expressed among Indigofera accession. However, accessions that came from the same species had the tendency to cluster together.


Abou El-leel OF, El Ghadban MAM, Mahdy EHB. 2017. Morphological, phytochemical and molecular characterization on some Jatropha species cultivated in Egypt. Int J Pharm Sci & Scient Res 3 (1) : 1-13. doi : 10.25141/2471-6782-2017-1.0001
Adegbite AE. 2008. Leaf anatomical studies in some species of the tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) in Nigeria. Comp Newsl 46:49-58
Airy Shaw HK. 1985. A Dictionary of The Flowering Plants & Ferns. 8th Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Arzani K, Ghasemi M, Yadollahi A, Hokmabadi H.2013. Study of foliar epidermal anatomy of four pistachio rootstocks under water stress. Idesia (Chile) 31 (1) : 101-107
Awomukwu DA, Nyananyo BL, Uka CJ, Okeke CU.2015.Identification of the genus Phyllanthus (Family Phyllanthaceae) in Southern Nigeria using comparative systematic morphological and anatomical studies of the vegetative organs. Glob J Sci Frontier Res (C) 15 (2) :79-93
Aworinde DO, Ogundairo BO, Erinoso SM, Sharaibi OJ. 2013. Foliar epidermal and petiole anatomical studies of some Nigerian species of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Curr Botany 4(3): 55-58
Bako SP, Aguh BI. 2007. Qualitative evaluation of phytochemical profiles in Loranthacean mistletoes (Tapinanthus sp.) as related to their hosts. Nig J Bot (20) : 297-305
Balamurugan G, Selvarajan S.2009 Preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Int J Drug Development & Res 1(1):157-160.
Bangar AV, Saralaya MG. 2011. Anti hyperglycemic activity of ethanol extract and chloroform extract of Indigofera tinctoria leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Res J Pharm, Biological & Chemical Sci 2(1):445-455
Beyene P, Botha A, Myburg AA. 2005. A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing genetic relationships in traditional Ethiopian highland maize. African J Biotechnology 4 (7) : 586-595
Burkill HM.1995. The Useful Plants of the Tropical Africa. Second Edition. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. p. 654-670
Castaneda OA, Pacheco H, Hernandez P, Rodriquez ME, Vidal G. 2009. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chemistry 113:859-871.
Chauhan D, Daniel M. 2011. Foliar micromorphological studies on some members of the family Fabaceae. Int J Pharm & Bio Sci 2 (4) : 603-611
Chikmawati T. 2013. Anatomical and cytological features of Spathoglottis plicata from Java island. J Trop Life Sci 3 (2): 87-90
Delgado-Vargas F, Paredes-Lopez O. 2003. Natural Colorants for Food and Nutraceutical Uses. CRC Press, Boca Raton
De Kort I, Thijsse G 1984. A Revision of Indigofera in Southeast Asia. Blumea 30: 89 – 151.
Felicia FA, Muthulingam M. 2012. Antihepatotoxic efficacy of methanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.) on Paracetamol – induced liver damage in rats. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2 (2):244-250.
Francis FJ. 1982. Analysis of anthocyanins.In Markakis P. (Ed.). Anyhocyanins as food colors. Academic Press, New York.
Gao XF, Sun H, Schrire BD. 2010. Indigofera. Flora of China 10: 137–164 .
Hetherington AM, Woodward FI.2003. The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424: 901-908.
Howard RA.1988. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Dicotyledoneae.Harvard University Press, Harvard.p.673
Jingura RM, Kamusoko R. 2015. Utility of markers for determination of genetic diversity in Jatropha : A Review. Open Renew Energ J 8 : 1-6
Kumar V, Singh PK, Dudhane AS, De DK, Satya P. 2014. Anatomical and morphological characteristics of nine jute genotypes. J Crop Weed 10 (2): 334-339
Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. 2005. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Leelavathi P, Ramaya N. 1983. Structure, distribution and classification of plant trichomes in relation to taxonomy III, Papilionoideae. Proc Indian Acad Sci 3 (Plant Sci) 92 (5): 421-441
Linnaeus C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I.. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae
Mabberley DJ. 2008. The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Marquiafável FS, Ferreira MDS, Teixeira SP. 2009. Novel reports of glands in Neotropical species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae). Flora 204 : 189–197
Mateus N, Freitas V. 2009. Anthocyanins as Food Colorants. In Gould K, Davies K, Winefield C (Eds). Anthocyanins: Biosynthesis, Function and Application. Springer Science Busines Media LLCC, New York.
Munir M, Khan MA, Ahmed M, Bano A, Ahmed SN, Tariq K, Tabassum S, Mukhtar T, Ambreen M, Bashir S. 2011.Foliar epidermal anatomy of some ethnobotanically important species of wild edible fruits of northern Pakistan. J Med Plants Res 5 (24): 5873-5880.
Mbagwu FN, Nwachukwu CU, Okoro OO. 2008. Comparative leaf epidermal studies on Solanum marcocarpon and S. nigrum. Res J Botany 3(1):45-48.
Motamarri SN, Karthikeyan M, Rajasekar S, Gopal V. 2012. Indigofera tinctoria - a phytopharmacological review. Int J Res Pharm & Biomedical Sci 3 (1):164-169
Nwachukwu CU, Mbagwu FN.2006. Anatomical studies on the petiole of some species of Indigofera. Agricultural J 1 (2):55-58.
Pitoyo A. Prameta AA, Marsusi, Suratman, Suranto.2018. Morphological, anatomical and isozyme variability among taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from southeastern part of Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 19 (5): 1811-1819.
Prabhakar M, Vijay-Kumar BK, Ramayya N, Leelavathi P. 1985. Structure, distribution and taxonomic significance of trichomes in some Indigofera L. (Fabaceae). Proc Indian Acad Sci 3 (Plant Sci) 95 (5): 309.
Quesada EM. 1997. Taxonomic significance of foliar dermotypes and floral trichomes in some cuban taxa of Indigofera L. (Fabaceae - Faboideae). Polibotanica 6 : 1-18.
Rahayu SE, Chikmawati T, Kartawinata K, Hartana A. 2012. Leaf anatomy of Pandanus species (Pandanaceae) from Java. Plant Soc Ecol 13 (4): 317-378.
Renukadevi KP, Sultana SS.2011. Determination of anti bacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity effect of Indigofera tinctoria on lung cancer cell line NCI-h69. Int J Pharmacology 7(3) : 356-362.
Sabaghnia N, Janmohammadi M, Bashiri A, Asghari-Shirghanr R. 2014. Genetic variation of several bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes based on some morphological traits. Ann Univ Mariae Curie-Sklodowska Lublin-Polonia 69 (1): 44-54.
Schrire BD. 1998. Notes relating to the genus Indigofera (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) for Flora Zambesiaca: 2. Section Indigofera. Kew Bull 53 : 651-668.
Schrire BD. 2005. Tribe Indigofereae. In Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M (Eds.), Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. p.361-365
Suratman, Pitoyo A, Kurniasari S, Suranto. 2016. Morphological, anatomical and isozyme variation among giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos) accessions from Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17 (2) : 422-429
Tyagi PK, Rai VK, Pahria AK, Kumar SS, Singh Y, Sharma M, Goyal M. 2010. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. J Curr Pharmaceutical Res 3(1): 47-50
Vijay-Kumar BK. 1988. Structure, distribution and classification of plant trichomes in relation to taxonomy in Indigofera L. (Fabaceae). Indian J Forestry 11(2):120-130.
Vijay-Kumar BK, Ramayya N. 1987. Foliar dermotypes of some endemic taxa of Indigofera (Fabaceae) and their taxonomic significance. Indian J Bot 10 (2):113-120.
Widiawati D.2009. The revival of the usage of natural fibers and natural dyes in Indonesian textile. J Vis Art Des 3 (2) : 115-128
Yoewono FB, Sanaryan KAR, Untari R.2012. Extraction of natural dyes from Indigofera tinctoria for Batik coloration. The First International Conference on Greenpreneurship, 20-21 September 2012, Indonesia
Zipor G, Oren-Shamir M. 2013. Do vacuolar peroxidases act as plant caretakers?. Plant Sci 199-200:41-47.

Most read articles by the same author(s)