Conservation status of large mammals in protected and logged forests of the greater Taman Negara Landscape, Peninsular Malaysia




Abstract. Clements GR, Rostro-García S, Kamler JF, Liang SH, Hashim AKBA. 2021. Conservation status of large mammals in protected and logged forests of the greater Taman Negara Landscape, Peninsular Malaysia. Biodiversitas 22: 272-277. Peninsular Malaysia contains a large community of IUCN Threatened mammal species, although recent records in some protected areas is unknown. The greater Taman Negara Landscape is one of the national priority areas for tiger conservation, but the recent occurrence of large mammals in the landscape has not been sufficiently updated. Here, we conducted systematic camera-trap surveys in protected and logged forests of the Taman Negara Landscape: Merapoh in Taman Negara National Park (TNM), and the Dungun Timber Complex (DTC), respectively. We found that the diversity of large mammals in TNM appeared to be the same between 2000 and 2016. The detection frequencies (DF) of several Threatened species, such as Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni), dhole (Cuon alpinus), and Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica), were similar between surveys, suggesting the relative abundance of these species likely remained stable during the past 16 years. However, the DF of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) were lower compared to 2000. In DTC, overall mammalian diversity was relatively lower than in TNM, primarily due to the non-detection of two large ungulates: gaur (Bos gaurus) and sambar (Rusa unicolor). Nevertheless, we recorded several other Threatened species of mammals, suggesting there is potential for this forest reserve to preserve some of Peninsular Malaysia’s most Threatened mammal species. Our results suggest that the Taman Negara Landscape is still an important global site for the conservation of several Threatened species, and we recommend an increase in wildlife law enforcement efforts to ensure the survival of its large and diverse mammalian community.


Berry NJ, Phillips OL, Lewis SL, Hill JK, Edwards DP, Tatatao NB, Ahmad N, Magintan D, Khen CV, Maryati M, Ong RC, Hamer HC. 2010.
The high value of logged tropical forests: lessons from northern Borneo. Biodivers Conserv 19: 985-997.

Clements GR, Lynam AJ, Gaveau D, Yap WL, Lhota S, Goosem M, Laurance S, Laurance WF. 2014. Where and how are roads endangering
mammals in Southeast Asia’s forests? PLoS ONE 9: e115376.

Duckworth JW, Sankar K, Williams AC, Samba Kumar N, Timmins RJ. 2016. Bos gaurus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016:

Duckworth JW, Batters G, Belant JL, Bennett EL, Brunner J, Burton J, Wirth R. 2012. Why South-East Asia should be the world’s priority for
averting imminent species extinctions, and a call to tackle this urgent issue. SAPIENS 5: 77-95.

Edwards DP, Hodgson JA, Hamer KC, Mitchell SL, Ahmad AH, Cornell SJ, Wilcove DS. 2010. Wildlife-friendly oil palm plantations fail to
protect biodiversity effectively. Conserv Lett 3: 236-242.

Havmøller RS, Payne J, Ramono W, Ellis S, Yoganand K, Long B, Dinerstein E, Williams C, Putra RH, Gawi J, Talukdar BK, Burgess N. 2016.
Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis? Oryx 50: 355-359.

Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, Rasanen TA. 2015. Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest
landscapes: a global analysis. PLoS ONE 10: e0138918

Hughes AC. 2017. Understanding the drivers of Southeast Asian biodiversity loss. Ecosphere 8: e01624.

Kamler J F, Songsasen N, Jenks K, Srivathsa A, Li S, Kunkel K. 2015. Cuon alpinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015:

Kawanishi K. 2015. Panthera tigris ssp. jacksoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T136893A50665029.

Kawanishi K, Sunquist ME. 2004. Conservation status of tigers in a primary forest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biol Conserv 120: 329-344.

Lynam AJ, Nowell K. 2011. Panthera tigris spp. corbetti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T136853A4346984.

Rasphone A, Kéry M, Kamler JF, Macdonald DW. 2019. Documenting the demise of tiger and leopard, and the status of other carnivores and
prey, in Lao PDR’s most prized protected area: Nam Et-Phou Louey. Glob Ecol Conserv 20: e00766.

Ritchie EG, Johnson CN. 2009. Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Ecol Lett 12: 982-998.

Rostro-García S, Kamler JF, Clements GR, Lynam AJ, Naing H. 2019. Panthera pardus spp. delacouri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2019: e.T124159083A124159128.

Rostro-García S, Kamler JF, Ash E, Clements GR, Gibson L, Lynam AJ, McEwing R, Naing H, Paglia S. 2016. Endangered leopards: range
collapse of the Indochinese Leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in Southeast Asia. Biol Conserv 201: 293-300.

Rostro-García S, Kamler JF, Crouthers R, Sopheak K, Prum S, In V, Pin C, Caragiulo A, Macdonald DW. 2018. An adaptable but threatened big
cat: density, diet and prey selection of the Indochinese Leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in eastern Cambodia. R Soc Open Sci 5: 171187.

Timmins R, Kawanishi K, Giman B, Lynam A, Chan B, Steinmetz R, Sagar Baral H, Samba Kumar N. 2015. Rusa unicolor. The IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species 2015: e.T4179085628124.

Wilcove DS, Giam X, Edwards DP, Fisher B, Koh LP. 2013. Navjot’s nightmare revisited: Logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast
Asia. Trends Ecol Evol 28: 531-540.

Woodcock P, Edwards DP, Fayle TM, Newton RJ, Khen CV, Bottrell SH, Hamer KC. 2011. The conservation value of South East Asia’s highly
degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants. Philos T R Soc B 366: 3256-3264.