Species identification and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Indonesian native chickens, and its impact on egg production




Abstract. Zalizar L, Winaya A, Malik A, Widodo W, Suyatno, Anggraini AD. 2021. Species identification and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Indonesian native chickens, and its impact on egg production. Biodiversitas 22: 4363-4369. Gastrointestinal parasite (GIP) infection is a severe problem of local chicken production, such as poultry and egg. Hence, the proper strategy to control the parasite invasion should be implemented regarding chicken productivity performance. Moreover, the existing environment is also essential in supporting chicken production. The study's objective was to determine the prevalence rate of the gastrointestinal helminths in four strains of Indonesian native chicken viz. RanupaneLokal PutihWareng, and Lurik, and the impact of the chicken egg production. A total of 280 chickens which were evaluated consisting of 70 birds from each strain, were tested for the prevalence of helminths eggs in a sample of feces and the effect on hen day production (HDP). The results showed that the percentage rates of infected chicken with helminths reached 56.43%, and the number of eggs per gram (EPG) in all four strains was considered moderate (115 EPG of feces). At the same time, the average of HDP per the four strains at 7 to 12 months was about 34.36-45.80%, which was in a normal range. The majority of helminths species found in examined native chicken were Ascaridia galliHeterakis gallinarumRaillietina spp., and Capillaria spp. The prevalence of GIP helminths did not negatively affect egg production in all four strains of chicken by moderately tolerant infections, and the HDP of chickens was normal.


Ali M, Faroq M, Durrani FR, Chand N, Sarbilan K, Riaz A. 2003. Egg production performance and prediction of standard limits for traits of economic importance in broiler breeders. Int. J. Poul. Sci. 2 (4): 275–279. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2003.275.279.
Azzez OI, Oyagbemi AA, Iji OT. 2012. Haematology and erythrocyte osmotic fragility indices in domestic chicken following exposure to a polyvalent iodophorous disinfectant. Jordan J. Biol. Sci. 5(2): 99–103. http://www.jjbs.hu.edu.jo/files/v5n2/Paper%20Number%203-%20mod.pdf
Berhe M, Mekibib B, Bsrat A, Atsbaha G. 2019. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of chicken under different management system in Mekelle Town, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med.., 2019: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1307582.
BPS Jatim [Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jatim] [Central Statistics Bureau of East Java Province]. 2020. Rata-rata suhu dan kelembaban udara di JawaTimur. [The Degree of temperature and humidity in East Java]. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. 2019. https://jatim.bps.go.id. Accessed on Oct. 2020.
BPS [Badan Pusat Statistik] [Central Statistics Bureau]. 2021. Populasi Ayam Buras Menurut Provinsi, 2018–2020] [Population of Native Chicken Based on Province, 2018–2020]. Available at: https://www.bps.go.id/indicator/24/476/1/populasi-ayam-buras-menurut-provinsi-.html, accessed Februari 2021.
Butbonchoo P, Wongsawad C, Rojanapaibul A, Chai J. 2016. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from domestic chickens in Thailand. Korean J Parasitol. 54(6): 777–786 doi: 10.3347/kjp.2016.54.6.777.
Cortes PL, Chin RP, Bland MC, Crespo R, Shivaprasad HL. 2004. Histomoniasis in the bursa of fabricius of chickens. Avian Diseases. 48 (3): 711–715. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1593529.pdf.
Damayanti EA, Hastutiek P, Estoepangestie ATS, Retno NDL, Kusnoto, E Suprihati. 2019. Prevalensi dan derajat infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada ayam buras (Gallus Domesticus) di Desa Kramat Kecamatan Bangkalan Kabupaten Bangkalan. [The prevalence and infection’s degree of gastrointestinal worm of local chicken (Gallus Domesticus) in Kramat Village, District of Bangkalan, Madura, East Java Indonesia]. J. Parasite Sci. 3(1): 41– 46 [in Bahasa Indonesia]. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jops.v3i1.16436.
Dastagir M, Yasmeen M, Kannarath A. 2017. A comparative Study of ecto and endo parasites of free range and captive Fowl in Sangli District, Maharashtra. GSC Bio. Pharm. Sci. 1(3): 54-58.
Eshetu Y, Mulualem E, Ibrahim H, Berhanu A, Abera K. 2001. Study of gastrointestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara Region, Ethiophia. Rev. Scie. Tech. 20(3), 791–796. doi: 10.20506/rst.20.3.1310.
Fakae BB, Paul-Abiade CU. 2004. Rainy season period prevalence of helminths in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) in Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Vet. J. 24(1): 21–27. https://www.ajol.info//index.php/nvj/article/view/3432.
Ferdushy T, Hasan MT, Golam KAKM. 2016. Cross sectional epidemiological investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free range chickens in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. J. Parasit. Dis. 40: 818–822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0585-5.
Gimba FI, Ola-Fadunsin SD, Abdullah DA, Konto M, Daudu BB, Abubakar D. 2019. Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites of chickens in some villages in Taraba state, North-Eastern Nigeria. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 31: Article #50. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd31/4/olash31050.html.
Goater TM, Goater CP, Esch GW. 2014. Nematoda: The roundworms. 228 pp. In Goater TM., Goater CP. and Esch GW eds. Parasitism – The Diversity and Ecology of Animal Parasites. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press.UK., 2014. pp. 497.
Hayanti SY. 2014. Petunjuk teknis budidaya ayam kampung unggul (KUB) Badan Litbang Pertanian di Provinsi Jambi. [Technical guidelines for the cultivation of superior native chicken (KUB) Agency for Agricultural Research and Development in Jambi Province]. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Jambi. [Institute for Agricultural Technology Assessment (BPTP) Jambi]. [Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture]. 1–14 [in Bahasa Indonesia]. 2014. http://jambi.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ind/images/PDF/14bookkub.pdf. Accessed on Feb. 2020.
Isroli, Susanti S, Widiastuti E, Yudiarti T, Sugiharto. 2009. Observasi beberapa variabel hematologis ayam Kedu pada pemeliharaan intensif [Physiology variables observation of Kedu Chicken in intensive conservation as effort to serve availability of plasm germ database]. Seminar Nasional Kebangkitan Peternakan [National Seminar of Animal Husbandry Resurrection]. Semarang, 20 Mei 2009. http://eprints.undip.ac.id/15639/.
Javaregowda AK, Kavitha Rani B, Revanna SP, Udupa G. 2016. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga. J. Parasit. Dis. 40: 986–990. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0620-6.
Klion AD, Nutman TB. 2002. Immunity to Parasitic Worm. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Macmillan Publisher Ltd, Nature Publishing Group, 2002, p. 1–8. DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0000482.
Loliwu YA, Thalib I. 2012. Prevalensi penyakit cacing pada ayam buras di Desa Taende dan Tomata Kecamatan Mori Atas Kabupaten Morowali. [Prevalence of worm disease in native chickens in the Taende and Tomata village Mori Atas District Morowali Regency]. J. Agro. Pet. 9(1): 69–83 [in Bahasa Indonesia]. https://ojs.unsimar.ac.id/index.php/AgroPet/article/view/9.
Lozano J, Anaya A, Salinero AP, Hoppe EGL, Gomes L, Paz-Silva A, Rebelo MT, Madeira DL. 2019. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens – a worldwide issue. Bull. Univ. Agric. Sci. Vet. Med. Cluj-Napoca. Vet. Med. 76(2): 110–117. https://doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-vm:2019.0019.
Maizels RM, Hewitson JP, Smith KA. 2012. Susceptibility and immunity to helminth parasites. Curr. Opinion Immun. 24: 459–466. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2012.06.003.
Mengesha M. 2012. Indigenous Chicken Production and the innate characteristics. Asian J. Poul. Sci. 6: 56-64. DOI: 10.3923 / ajpsaj.2012.56.64.
Molla W, Haile H, Almaw G, Temesgen W. 2012. Gastrointestinal helminths of local backyard chickens in North Gondar Administrative Zone, Ethiopia. Rev. de Med. Vet. 163(7): 362–367. https://www.revmedvet.com/2012/RMV163_362_367.pdf.
Negbenebor HE, Ali M. 2018. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of local chickens (Gallus gallus domestica) in Kano, Nigeria, Ann. Microb. Infec. Dis.,; 1(4): 45-49.
North MQ. 1984. Breeder Management. In Commercial Chicken Production Manual. The Avi. Publishing Company Inc. Westport. Connecticut. 240–243, 1984. 298–321 pp.
Prayogi HS. 2011. The improvement of Indonesian native chicken; estimation of genetic parameters, response to selection, and disease resistance ability. J. Ilmu-ilmu Pet. (Indonesian J. Anim. Sci.). 21(1): 1–5. https://jiip.ub.ac.id/index.php/jiip/article/view/99/196.
Rufai MA, Jato AO. 2017. Assessing the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites of poultry and their environmental risk factors in poultry in Iwo, Osun State Nigeria. Ife J. Sci. 19 (1), 7–13. DOI: 10.4314/ijs.v19i1.2.
Satrija F, Ridwan Y, Retnani EB, Tiuria R. 2003. Penggunaan Antelmintika untuk Pengendalian Kecacingan pada Ternak. [The using of anthelmintic for worm control in livestock]. Di dalam: Strategi Pemanfaatan Anthel-mintika untuk Pengendalian Kecacingan pada Ternak [In: Strategy of anthelmintic utilization for worm control in livestock]. Seminar Sehari [One Day Seminar], 11 Feb 2003, Bagian Parasitologi dan Patologi [Department of Parasitology and Pathology]. Faculty of Veterinary, Bogor Agriculture University and PT. Capsulgell Indonesia. pp. 1–7.
Sherwin CM, Nasr MAF, Gale E, Petek M, Stafford K, Turp M, Coles GC. 2013. Prevalence of fecal and nematode infection in laying hens clearances: relationship to house and farms. British Poult. Sci. 54(1): 12–23. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00071668.2012.757577.
Sreedevi C, Jyothisree Ch, Rama Devi V, Annapurna P, Jeyabal L. 2016. Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) in and around Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh. J. Parasit. Dis. 40: 656–661. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0553-0.
Steel R, Torrie J, Dickey D. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York. 1997.
Tarbiat B, DS Jansson DS, Hoglund J. 2015. Environmental tolerance of free-living stages of the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli. Vet. Parasitol. 209(1–2): 101–107. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.01.024.
Tarkhan AH, Saleh KMM, Al-Zghoul MB. 2020. Heat exposure affects then mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in embryonic and adult broiler chickens. Jordan J. Biol. Sci., 13(4): 431–435. http://jjbs.hu.edu.jo/files/vol13/n4/Paper%20Number%203.pdf.
Thienpont D, Rochette F, Vanparijs OFJ. 2003. Diagnosing Helminthiasis Through Coprological Examination 3rd ed. Janssen Research Foundation Beerse. Belgium, 2003. p. 139–155.
USFDA [United Stated Food and Drug Administration]. 2019. Blackhed disease in poultry. https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/resources-you/blackhead-disease-poultry. Accessed on January 2021.
Van NTB, Cuong NV, Yen NT, Nhi NTH, Kiet BT, Hoang NV, Hien VB, Thwaits G, Carrique-Mas JJ, Ribas A. 2020. Characterization of gastrointestinal helminths and their impact in commercial small-scale chicken flocks in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 52: 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01982-3.
Vlassoff A, Leathwick DM, Health ACT. 2001. Epidemiology of nematode infection in sheep. New Zealand J. Vet. Med. 49: 213–221.
Wokem G, Obiyor E. 2018. Assessment of intestinal parasites of commercial layers in selected local government areas of Rivers State, Nigeria and their public health implications. Curr. Trends Biomedical Eng. & Biosci. 11(5): 555822. DOI: 10.19080/CTBEB.2018.11.555822.
Wongrak K, Da? G, Moors E, Sohnrey B, Gauly M. 2014. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochensch. 127(7–8): 314–21. https://doi.org/10.2376/0005-9366-127-314.
Wuthijaree K, Lambertz C, Vearasilp T, Anusatsananun V, Gauly M. 2019. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Thai indigenous chickens raised under backyard conditions in Northern Thailand. J. App. Poul. Res. 28(1): 221–229.
Zalizar L, Satrija F, Tiuria R, Astuti DA. 2006, Dampak infeksi Ascaridia galli terhadap gambaran histopatologis dan luas permukaan vili usus halus serta penurunan bobot hidup starter. [Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters]. J. Ilmu Ter. Vet. 11(3): 222–228. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://new.medpub.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jitv/article/view/529.
Zalizar L, Satrija F, Tiuria R, Astuti DA. 2007 Respon ayam yang mempunyai pengalaman infeksi Ascaridia galli terhadap infeksi ulang dan implikasinya terhadap produktivitas dan kualitas telur. [The response of chickens that infected Ascaridia galli to reinfection and its implications for egg productivity and quality]. J. Anim. Prod. 2007; 9(2), 92–98. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://www.animalproduction.net/index.php/JAP/article/view/161/150.