Short Communication: Bacillus endolithicus and Bacillus paramycoides: New isolates from housefly Musca domestica in Saudi Arabia




Abstract. El-Ghwas DE, Al-Nasser AS, Al-Sheikhy AA. 2021. Short Communication: Bacillus endolithicus and Bacillus paramycoides: New Isolates from housefly Musca domestica in Saudi Arabia. Biodiversitas 22: 4209-4214. Housefly Musca domestica Linnaeus is a common insect widely distributed all over the world. It is one of the domestic insects found associated with humans and animals. The present study investigated the bacterial diversity associated with Musca domestica samples collected from different places such as food courts and trash cans near fast-food restaurants in Makkah Province from October 2019 to December 2019. Eighteen pure isolates of bacterial strains were isolated and identified by Gram staining. Most of the bacterial isolates were Gram-positive except for two species, which were Gram-negative. The VITEK system was used to identify randomly isolate no. 5, 7, 17, 18, and 29. The results revealed that they belonged to the genus Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Micrococcus sp. respectively. Due to the most isolated strains were Bacillus sp., so 16S RNA was used to genetically identify novel isolated strains 5 and 7. Isolate no. 5 showed the highest similarity (99 %) with Bacillus endolithicus, and isolate no. 7 showed the highest similarity (99 %) with Bacillus paramycoides. This is the first record of Bacillus endolithicus and Bacillus paramycoides to be isolated from the house fly Musca domestica L.


Ahmad A, Ghosh A, Schal C, Zurek L. 2011 Insects in confined swine operations carry a large antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococcal community. BMC Microbiology. 11(1): 23 doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-23.
Akter S, Sabuj AAM, Haque ZF, Rahman MT, Kafi MA, Saha S. 2020. Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes from houseflies. Veterinary World. 13(2): 266-274. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.266-274
Atlas RM 1993. Handbook of microbiological media. Lawerence C. Parks, CRC Press. Boca KRaton, Ann. Arbor, London, Tokyo.
Bahrndorff S, de Jonge N, Skovgård H, Nielsen JL 2017. Bacterial Communities Associated with Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) Sampled within and between Farms. PloS One. 12 (1).
Baker FJ 1967. Handbook of bacteriological technique, 2nd ed. Butterworth and Co. Ltd., London.
Boulesteix G, Le Dantec P, Chevalier B, Dieng M, Niang B, Diatta B. 2005. Role of Musca domestica in the transmission of multiresistant bacteria in the centers of intensive care setting in a sub-Saharan Africa. Annales Françaises d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation. 24 : 361- 365. DOI: 10.1016/j.annfar.2005.01.016
Clark PU, Botella LM, Moya A. 1974. Larval stop, delayed development and survival in overcrowded cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, effect of urea and uric acid. Journal of Insect Physiology. 31: 179-185
Davari B, Kalantar E, Zahirnia A, Moosa-Kazemi SH 2010. Frequency of Resistance and Susceptible Bacteria Isolated from Houseflies. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 4(2): 50–5.
Förster M, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H, Sievert K, Messler S, Pfeffer K. 2007. Pilot study on synanthropic flies (e.g. Musca, Sarcophaga, Calliphora, Fannia, Lucilia, Stomoxys) as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. Parasitology Research. 101: 243–246.
Haeidari A, Keshavarzi D, Owlia P, Vatandoost H, Rafinejad A, Rafinejad J. 2021. Isolation and enumeration of bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections from houseflies and determining their susceptibility to poison bait. Nustantara Bioscience. 13(1): 24-28.
Heiden, S. E., Kurz, M., Bohnert, J., Bayingana, C., Ndoli, J. M., Sendegeya, A., Gahutu, J. B., Eger, E., Mockenhaupt, F. P., & Schaufler, K. (2020). Flies from a tertiary hospital in Rwanda carry multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli sequence type 131. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 9(1), 34.
Hemmatinezhad B, Ommi D, Hafshejani TT, Khamesipour F. 2015. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from houseflies (Musca domestica) in Iran. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 21:18.
Himathongkham S, Bahari S, Riemann H, Cliver D. 1999. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in cow manure and cow manure slurry. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 178: 251–257. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08684. x.
Ibrahim AW, Ajiboye TO, Akande TA, Anibaba OO. 2018. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms from Houseflies. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: C Biological Science. 18(1): 57-64.
Kassiri H, Akbarzadeh K, Ghaderi A. 2012. Isolation of Pathogenic Bacteria on the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Body Surface in Ahwaz Hospitals, Southwestern Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2(2): 1116-1119.
Khamesipour F, Lankarani KB, Honarvar B, Kwenti TE. 2018. A systematic review of human pathogens carried by the housefly (Musca domestica L.). BMC Public Health. 18: 1049.
Kobayashi M, Ooi HK, Taira K. 2020. Effects of anthelmintics on the pinworm Blatticola blattae in laboratory-reared German cockroaches Blattella germanica. Parasitology research. 119(9): 3093–3097.
Macovei L, Zurek L. 2006. Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Characterization of Enterococci from Houseflies Collected in Food Settings. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72:4028-4035.
Manandhar R, Gokhale S. 2017. Are Houseflies Still Important Vector of Gastrointestinal Infections? Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology. 8(4): 318.
Meerburg BG, Vermeer HM, Kijlstra, A. 2007. Controlling risks of pathogen transmission by flies on organic pig farms: a review. Outlook on Agriculture. 36: 193–197.
Nassiri H, Zarrin M, Veys-Behbahani R, Faramarzi S, Nasiri A. 2015. Isolation and identification of pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) captured from the hospital environments in Alivaz city, Southwestern Iran. Journal of Medical Entomology. 52(6): 1351–1356.
Nazari M, Mehrabi T, Hosseini SM, Alikhani MY 2017. Bacterial Contamination of Adult House Flies (Musca domestica) and Sensitivity of these Bacteria to Various Antibiotics, Captured from Hamadan City, Iran. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR.11(4): DC04–DC07.
Nazni WA, Seleena B, Lee HL, Jeffery JT, Rogayah TAR, Sofian MA 2005. Bacteria fauna from the house fly, Musca domestica (L.). Tropical Biomedicine. 22(2): 225-231.
Neupane S, Nayduch D, Zurek L. 2019. House Flies (Musca domestica) Pose a Risk of Carriage and Transmission of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Insects. 10: 358. doi: 10.3390/insects10100358
Nichols GL. 2005. Fly transmission of campylobacter. Emerging infectious disease. 11(3): 361-364. doi: 10.3201/eid1103.040460
Nwankwo EO, Ekemezie CL, Adeyemo S. 2019. Evaluation of microbial flora of the external surface of housefly (Musca domestica) in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Southeast Nigeria. Calabar Journal of Health Sciences. 3(1): 9-15.
Park R, Dzialo MC, Spaepen S, Nsabimana D, Gielens K, Devriese H, Crauwels S, Tito RY, Raes J, Lievens B. Verstrepen KJ 2019. Microbial communities of the house fly Musca domestica vary with geographical location and habitat. Microbiome. 7:147.
Rainey FA, Dorsch M, Morgan HW, Stackebrandt E. 1992. 16S rDNA analysis of Spirochaeta thermophila: Its phylogenetic position and implications for the systematics of the order Spirochaetales. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 15(2): 197-202.
Rajendhran J. Selvaraj Pandian R. 2003. Microbial flora isolated from an urban population of non-biting vector, Musca domestica and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Asian Journal of Microbiology. Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. 5: 381–385.
Rosef O, Kapperud G. 1983. House flies (Musca domestica) as possible vectors of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 45(2): 381-383. doi: 10.1128/AEM.45.2.381-383.1983
Solà-Ginés M, González-López JJ, Cameron-Veas K, Piedra-Carrasco N, Cerdà-Cuéllar M, Migura-Garcia L. 2015. Houseflies (Musca domestica) as Vectors for Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Spanish Broiler Farms. Applied and environmental microbiology. 81(11): 3604–3611.
Songe MM, Hang'ombe BM, Knight-Jones TJ, Grace, D. 2017. Antimicrobial Resistant Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Houseflies Infesting Fish in Food Markets in Zambia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14(1): 21.
Sulaiman S, Othman MZ, Aziz AH 2000. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Vector Ecology. 25: 90-93.
Zahn LK, Gerry AC. 2020. Diurnal flight activity of house flies (Musca domestica) is influenced by sex, time of day, and environmental conditions. Insects. 11(6): 391-396.
Zurek L, Ghosh A 2014. Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80: 3562–3567. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00600-14