A comparison between the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the natural and plantation populations of Dipterocarpus alatus




Abstract. Kaewgrajang T, Yamato M, Polamart T, Sangwanit U. 2023. A comparison between the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the natural and plantation populations of Dipterocarpus alatus. Biodiversitas 24: 2088-2098. Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. is a native tree species of Southeast Asian countries and one of the most economically important dipterocarp species. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi associated with D. alatus using molecular identifications on putative fruiting bodies and ECM roots collected from three natural forests and 10 D. alatus plantations. In this investigation, we aimed to report the ECM fungal communities of D. alatus in natural forests and plantations. Combining the results of fruiting bodies and ECM roots, 82 taxa belonging to 12 families were identified as ECM fungi. The ECM fungal community comprised many rare species and a few frequently found species. The Sebacina genus was found the most frequently in natural forests and plantations. The ECM fungal diversity was higher in plantations compared to natural forests. However, the frequently occurring ECM fungal taxa were not different between the natural forests and plantations. The result suggests that ECM fungal communities could be maintained in D. alatus plantations even if a reduction occurs in the natural population of dipterocarp forest.


Agerer R. 1987–2002. Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn-Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany.
Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang Z, Zheng Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25: 3389–3402.
Bâ AM, Duponnois R, Moyersoen B, Diédhiou AG. 2012. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees. Mycorrhiza 22: 1–29.
Barstow, M, Bartholomew, D. 2022. Two-thirds of Bornean endemic dipterocarp species threatened with extinction. Oryx 56(1): 9–10. DOI: 10.1017/s0030605321001228.
Bartholomew, D, Barstow, M, Randi, A, Bodos, V, Cicuzza, D, Hoo, PK, Juiling, S, Khoo, E, Kusumadewi, Y, Majapaun, R, Andi Maryani, AM, Maycock, CR, Nilus, R, Pereira, JT, Sang, J, Robiansyah, I, Sugau, JB, Tanggaraju, S, Tsen, S, Ying, LC. 2021. The Red List of Bornean Endemic Dipterocarps. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Surrey, UK.
Bray RH, Kurtz LT. 1945. Determination of total organic and available form of phosphorus in soil. Soil Sci 59: 39–45.
Brearley, FQ. 2012. Ectomycorrhizal associations of the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 44(5): 637–648. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00862.x.
Brearley FQ. 2006. Differences in the growth and ectomycorrhizal community of Dryobalanops lanceolata (Dipterocarpaceae) seedlings grown in ultramafic and non-ultrama?c soils. Soil Biol Biochem 38: 3407–3410.
Brearley FQ, Press MC, Scholes JD. 2003. Nutrients obtained from leaf litter can improve the growth of dipterocarp seedlings. New Phytol 160: 101–110.
Brundrett, MC, Tedersoo, L. 2018. Evolutionary history of mycorrhizal symbioses and global host plant diversity. New Phytologist 220(4): 1108–1115. DOI: 10.1111/nph.14976.
Chan, B. 2017. Southeast Asian forest concessions: small steps forward. The International Forestry Review 19: 27–35.
Chokthaweepanich, H, Butdavapee, S, Phongkaew, P. 2022. Genetic diversity and reletionships of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae) on island in freshwater lake and nearby mainland. Agriculture and Natyral Resources 56: 351–362.
Colwell RK. 2005. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 7.5. User's Guide and application published at: http://purl.oclc.org/estimates.
Deb, JC, Phinn, S, Butt, N, MaAlpine, CA. 2017. The impact of climate change on the distribution of two threatened Dipterocarp trees. Ecology and Evolution 7(7): 2238–2248. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2846.
Dyrmose, AMH, Turreira-García, N, Theilade, I, Meilby, H. 2017. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 62(1): 67–84.
Essene, AL, Shek, KL, Lewis, JD, Peay, KG, McGuire, KL. 2017. Soil type has a stronger role than dipterocarp host species in shaping the ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a bornean lowland tropical rain forest. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1–10. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01828.
Gardes M, Bruns TD. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced speci?city for basidiomycetes: application to the identi?cation of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2: 113–118.
Hyde, KD, Norphanphoun, C, Chen, J, Dissanayake, AJ, Doilom, M, Hongsanan, S, Jayawardena, RS, Jeewon, R, Perera, RH, Thongbai, B, Wanasinghe, DN, Wisitrassameewong, K, Tibpromma, S, Stadler, M. 2018. Thailand’s amazing diversity: up to 96% of fungi in northern Thailand may be novel. Fungal Diversity 93(1): 215–239. DOI: 10.1007/s13225-018-0415-7.
Jackson ML. 1965. Soil chemical analysis-advance course. Department of Soils, University of Wisconsin, USA.
Kaewgrajang, T., Sangwanit, U., Kodama, M., Yamato, M. 2014. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Dipterocarpus alatus seedlings introduced by soil inocula from a natural forest and a plantation. Journal of Forest Research 19(2): 260–267. DOI: 10.1007/s10310-013-0408-z.
Kaewgrajang T, Sangwanit U, Iwase K, Kodama M, Yamato M. 2013. Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungus Astraeus odoratus on Dipterocarpus alatus seedlings. J Trop For Sci 25: 200–205.
Kranabetter, JM, Friesen, J, Gamiet, S, Kroeger, P. 2005. Ectomycorrhizal mushroom distribution by stand age in western hemlock - Lodgepole pine forests of northwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(7): 1527–1539. DOI: 10.1139/x05-095
Krishnapillay, B. 2004. Tropical ecosystems: Dipterocarps. Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences: 1682–1687. DOI: 10.1016/b0-12-145160-7/00193-9.
Lee SS, Patahayah M, Chong WS Lapeyrie F. 2008. Successful ectomycorrhizal inoculation of two dipterocarp species with a locally isolated fungus in Peninsular Malaysia. J Trop For Sci 20: 237–247.
Lee SS, Watling R, Sikin YN. 2002. Ectomycorrhizal basidiomata fruiting in lowland rain forests of Peninsular Malaysia. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 274: 33?43.
Martín-Pinto, P, Oria-de-Rueda, JA, Dejene, T, Mediavilla, O, Hernández-Rodríguez, M, Reque, JA, Sanz-Benito, I, Santos, M, Geml, J. 2022. Influence of stand age and site conditions on ectomycorrhizal fungal dynamics in Cistus ladanifer-dominated scrubland ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 519: 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120340.
Moyersoen B. 2006. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is ectomycorrhizal, indicating an ancient Gondwanaland origin for the ectomycorrhizal habit in Dipterocarpaceae. New Phytol 172: 753–762.
Natarajan K, Narayanan K, Ravindran C, Kumaresan V. 2005. Diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi of a dipterocarp forest in Western Ghats. Current Science 88: 1893?1895.
Pang, SEH., De Alban, JDT, Webb, EL. 2021. Effects of climate change and land cover on the distributions of a critical tree family in the Philippines. Scientific Reports 11(1): 1–13. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-79491-9.
Peay, KG, Kennedy, PG, Davies, SJ, Tan, S, Bruns, TD. 2010. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: Community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone. New Phytologist 185(2): 529–542. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03075.x.
Peter M, Ayer F, Egli S, Honegger R. 2001. Above- and below-ground community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in three Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Switzerland. Can J Bot 79: 1134–1151.
Pooma, R, Poopath, M, Newman, MF. 2017. Plora of Thailand, Vol.13 Part 4: Dipterocarpacea. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department. Bangkok, Thailand.
Phosri, C, Põlme, S, Taylor, AFS, Kõljalg, U, Suwannasai, N, Tedersoo, L. 2012. Diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Thailand. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(9): 2287–2298. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-012-0250-1.
Sirikantaramas S, Sugioka N, Lee SS, Mohamed LA, Lee HS, Szmidt AE, Yamazaki T. 2003. Molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Dipterocarpaceae. Tropics 13: 69–77.
Smith, ME, Henkel, TW, Uehling, JK, Fremier, AK, Clarke, HD, Vilgalys, R. 2013. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a neotropical forest dominated by the endemic dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea. PLoS ONE 8(1): 1–13. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055160.
Smith, SE, Read, D. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Third Edit). Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier.
Stankevièienë D, Kasparavièius J, Rudawska M, Iwanski M. 2008. Studies of ectomycorrhizal fungi above- and belowground in the 50-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. Forest. Baltic Forestry 14: 7–15.
Steidinger, BS, Crowther, TW, Liang, J, Van Nuland, ME, Werner, GDA, Reich, PB, Nabuurs, G, de-Miguel, S, Zhou, M, Picard, N, Herault, B, Zhao, X, Zhang, C, Routh, D, Peay, KG, Abegg, M, Adou Yao, CY, Alberti, G, Almeyda Zambrano, A, Zo-Bi, IC. 2019. Climatic controls of decomposition drive the global biogeography of forest-tree symbioses. Nature 569: 404–408. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1128-0.
Tam, NM, Duy, VD, Duc, NM, Giap, VD, Xuan, BTT. 2014. Genetic variation in and spatial structure of natural populations of Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) determined using single sequence repeat markers. Genetics and Molecular Research 13(3): 5378–5386. DOI: 10.4238/2014.July.24.17.
Tedersoo, L, Bahram, M, Zobel, M. 2020. How mycorrhizal associations drive plant population and community biology. Science 367: 1–9. DOI: 10.1126/science.aba1223.
Tedersoo, L, Brundrett, MC. 2017. Evolution of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in plants. In: Tedersoo, L. (Ed.), Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (1st ed.), pp. 407–467. Springer International Publishing AG. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-56363-3_19.
Tedersoo, L, Nara, K. 2010. General latitudinal gradient of biodiversity is reversed in ectomycorrhizal fungi tropical. New Phytologist 185(2): 351–354. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03138.x.
Tedersoo, L, Smith, ME. 2017. Ectomycorrhizal fungal lineages: detection of four new groups and notes on consistent recognition of ectomycorrhizal taxa in high-throughput sequencing studies. Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis 230: 125–142. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-56363-3_6.
Tedersoo L, Jairus T, Horton BM, Abarenkov K, Suvi T, Saar I, Kõljalg U. 2008. Strong host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest as revealed by DNA barcoding and taxon-specific primers. New Phytol 180: 479–490.
Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Larsson E, Kõljalg U. 2006. Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a wooded meadow. Mycological Research 110: 734–748.
Tran, L, Nguyen, T, Do, T, Hoang, T, Trinh, N, Ninh, V, Pham, Q, Phung Dinh, D, Tran, H, Nguyen, T. 2017. Seminar on reclamation, rehabilitation and restoration of disturbed sites: planting of national and and IUCN red list species. In: Ho, W, Jeyanny, V, Sik, H, Lee C. (Eds.), Population of Threatened Dipterocarp Species in The Porests under Various Past Disturbances in The Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve, Southern Vietnam.
Watling R, Lee SS. 2007. Mycorrhizal mycodiversity in Malaysia. In Jones EBG, Hyde KD, Vikineswary S (eds) Malaysian fungal diversity. Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia, pp 201–219.
Weiß M, Sýkorová Z, Garnica S, Riess K, Martos F. 2011. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16793. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016793.
Wisitrassameewong, K, Manz, C, Hampe, F, Looney, BP, Boonpratuang, T, Verbeken, A, Thummarukcharoen, T, Apichitnaranon, T, Pobkwamsuk, M, Cabo?, M, Adam?ík, S. 2022. Two new Russula species (fungi) from dry dipterocarp forest in Thailand suggest niche specialization to this habitat type. Scientific Reports 12(1): 1–15. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-06836-x.
Yongram, C, Sungthong, B, Puthongking, P, Weerapreeyakul, N. 2019. Chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities of leaves, bark, twigs and oleo-resin of Dipterocarpus alatus. Molecules 24(17): 1–10. DOI: 10.3390/molecules24173083.
Yuwa-Amornpitak T, Vichitsoonthonkul T, Tanticharoen M, Cheevadhanarak S, Ratchadawong S. 2006. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi on Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand. J Biol Sci 6: 1059–1064.