The impact of nickel mining on vegetation index in Molawe Sub-district, North Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia




Abstract. Adidharma MA, Supriatna, Takarina ND. 2023. The impact of nickel mining on vegetation index in Molawe Sub-district, North Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 4581-4588. Nickel mining activities in Molawe Sub-district, North Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia have modified the land cover structure over time due to increased mining exploitation zones. This study intends to assess changes in land cover in the Molawe Sub-district, particularly around mining regions. The NDVI index was applied to Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery data in 2001 to identify land cover conditions before mining activities, then to Landsat 8 OLI imagery data in 2015 and 2020 to identify land cover after mining activities. These data are then used to compute annual changes in the extent of each land cover. The NDVI classification produces four land cover types: non-vegetation, open soil, sparse vegetation, and moderate vegetation. The study shows that non-vegetation and open ground cover types experienced a significant increase in area from 2001 to 2015 and from 2015 to 2020. Meanwhile, sparse vegetation forest cover experienced a reduction in area from 2001 to 2015 and 2015 to 2020. In contrast to sparse vegetation, the moderate vegetation cover is experiencing a minor increase in area. Based on these results, relevant policymakers need to formulate policies to mitigate environmental impacts that may arise in the future.


Amoakwah E, Lucas ST, Didenko NA, Rahman MA, Islam KR. 2022. Impact of deforestation and temporal land-use change on soil organic carbon storage, quality and lability. PLoS One 17 (8): e0263205. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263205.
Atiqah AH, Rhyma PP, Jamhuri J, Zulfa AW, Samsinar MS, Norizah K. 2020. Using google earth imagery to detect distribution of forest cover change-is the technique practical for Malaysian forests? Malays For 83 (1): 1-15.
Barus B, Tarigan SD, Tejo RK, Stanny YA. 2022. Development of a land stability index for land damage assessment: The case of a nickel mine, North Konawe, Indonesia. J Degrad Min Land Manag 9 (4): 3695-3702. DOI: 10.15243/Jdmlm.2022.094.3695.
Central Bureau of Statistics for North Konawe Regency. 2022. Molawe Sub-district in figures 2022. Central Bureau of Statistics for North Konawe Regency, Wanggudu. [Indonesian]
Central Bureau of Statistics for Southeast Sulawesi Province. 2022. Directory of Mining Companies in Southeast Sulawesi Province 2022. Central Bureau of Statistics for Southeast Sulawesi Province, Kendari. [Indonesian]
Chen T, Shu J, Han L, Tovele GSV, Li B. 2023. Landslide mechanism and stability of an open-pit slope: The manglai open-pit coal mine. Front Earth Sci 10: 1038499. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2022.1038499.
Essaadia A, Abdellah A, Ahmed A, Abdelouahed F, Kamal E. 2022. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the Zat Valley, Marrakech: Comparison and dynamics. Heliyon 8: e12204. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12204.
Fakhimi E. 2020. Impact of mining on variation of species diversity, richness and structure of vegetation cover (case study copper mine in Dareh Zereshk, Yazd Province, Iran). Iran J Rangel Desert Res 27 (4): 772-781. DOI: 10.22092/ijrdr.2020.123152.
Fang J, Kato T, Guo Z, Houghton RA. 2014. Evidence for environmentally enhanced forest growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111 (26): 9527-9532. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.140233311.
Fashola MO, Ngole-Jeme VM, Babalola OO. 2016. Heavy metal pollution from gold mines: Environmental effects and bacterial strategies for resistance. Intl J Environ Res Public Health 13 (11): 1047. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13111047.
Fawzi NI, Husna VN. 2019. Landsat 8-A Basic Level of Theory and Processing Techniques. El Markazi, Bengkulu. [Indonesian]
Firozjaei MK, Sedighi A, Firozjaei HK, Kiavarz M, Homaee M, Arsanjani JJ, Makki M, Naimi B, Alavipanah SK. 2021. A historical and future impact assessment of mining activities on surface biophysical characteristics change: A remote sensing-based approach. Ecol Indic 122: 107264. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107264.
Gandhi MG, Parthiban S, Thummalu N, Christy A. 2015. NDVI: Vegetation change detection using remote sensing and GIS-A case study of Vellore District. Procedia Comput Sci 57: 1199-1210. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.07.415.
Gao W, Zheng C, Liu X, Lu Y, Chen Y, Wei Y, Ma Y. 2022. NDVI-based vegetation dynamics and their responses to climate change and human activities from 1982 to 2020: A case study in the Mu Us Sandy Land, China. Ecol Indic 137: 108745. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108745.
Gessesse AA, Melesse AM. 2019. Chapter 8 - Temporal relationships between time series CHIRPS-Rainfall estimation and eMODIS-NDVI satellite images in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. In: Melesse AM, Abtew W, Senay G (eds.). Extreme Hydrology and Climate Variability: Monitoring, Modelling, Adaptation and Mitigation. Elsevier, Amsterdam. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815998-9.00008-7.
Gutman G, Skakun S, Gitelson A. 2021. Revisiting the use of red and near-infrared reflectances in vegetation studies and numerical climate models. Sci Remote Sens 4: 100025. DOI: 10.1016/j.srs.2021.100025.
Huang S, Tang L, Hupy JP, Wang Y, Shao G. 2020. A commentary review on the use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the era of popular remote sensing. J For Res 32: 1-6. DOI: 10.1007/s11676-020-01155-1.
Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 2022. Indonesia's mining sector in brief.
Jebur MN, Pradhan B, Shafri HZM, Yusoff ZM, Tehrany MS. 2015. An integrated user-friendly arcmap tool for bivariate statistical modelling in geoscience applications. Geosci Model Dev 8: 881-891. DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-881-2015.
Kasmudin, Hamuni, Safar M. 2018. Implementasi tanggungjawab sosial perusahaan (corporate social responsibility) terhadap masyarakat kawasan pertambangan (studi di Kecamatan Motui Kabupaten Konawe Utara). Selami IPS 4 (48): 383-394. DOI: 10.36709/selami.v4i48.8513. [Indonesian]
Kramer M, Kind-Rieper T, Munayer R, Giljum S, Masselink R, Ackern PV, Maus V, Luckeneder S, Kuschnig N, Costa F, Rüttinger L. 2023. Extracted Forests: Unearthing the Role of Mining-Related Deforestation as a Driver of Global Deforestation. WWF, Deutschland.
Kurakova KN, Ponomarenko TV. 2021. Impact of mining industry growth on sustainable development indicators. E3S Web Conf 266: 06007. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202126606007.
Kuzevic S, Bobikova D, Kuzevicova Z. 2022. Land cover and vegetation coverage changes in the mining area - a case study from Slovakia. Sustainability 14: 1180. DOI: 10.3390/su14031180.
Laksana MPA. 2022. Export taxes and trade pattern: Case from the Indonesian mineral industry. Indones J Dev Plan 6 (2): 37-53. DOI: 10.36574/jpp.v6i1.243.
Lawrence D, Coe M, Walker W, Verchot L, Vandecar K. 2022. The unseen effects of deforestation: Biophysical effects on climate. Front For Glob Change 5: 756115. DOI: 10.3389/ffgc.2022.756115.
Madasa A, Orimoloye IR, Ololade OO. 2021. Application of geospatial indices for mapping land cover/use change detection in a mining area. J Afr Earth Sci 175: 104108. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104108.
Masri M, Isalman, Putera A. 2019. Implementasi dan dampak Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) pada perusahaan pertambangan di Kabupaten Konawe Utara. Seminar Nasional INOBALI 2019 Inovasi Baru dalam Penelitian Sains, Teknologi dan Humaniora: 1154-1162. Bali, Indonesia. [Indonesian]
Mbaya RP. 2013. Land degradation due to mining: The gunda scenario. Intl J Geogr Geol 2 (12): 144-158. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2013.2.12/
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. 2020. Indonesian Nickel Investment Opportunities. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta.
Mohajane M, Essahlaoui A, Oudija F, Hafyani ME, Teodoro AC. 2017. Mapping forest species in the central middle atlas of Morocco (Azrou Forest) through remote sensing techniques. ISPRS Intl J Geoinf 6 (9): 275. DOI: 10.3390/ijgi6090275.
Momon, Adji BM, Kusuma DW, Yolarita E, Ukhwatu V, Masbiran K, Dodi A. 2021. Study analysis of landslide vulnerability of mining area in the Sub-District Lembah Gumanti, Solok Regency (Lubuk Selasih Street-Surian). E3S Web Conf 331:06007. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202133106007.
Moomen AW, Dewan A. 2015. Mining, agricultural space and land use conflicts: The role of local government. 2015 Fourth International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics). Istanbul, Turkey, July 2015. DOI: 10.1109/Agro-Geoinformatics.2015.7248103.
Mu C, Yu X, Zhao B, Zhang D, Mao X, Zhu J. 2021. The formation mechanism of surface landslide disasters in the mining area under different slope angles. Adv Civ Eng 2021: 6697790. DOI: 10.1155/2021/6697790.
Pour SI, Zadeh ARK, Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R, Boeck HJD, Gul A. 2021. Dust-related impacts of mining operations on rangeland vegetation and soil: A case study in Yazd Province, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 80: 467. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-021-09758-5.
Prasetyo BE, Supriadi A, Darmawan A, Kurniasih TN, Kurniawan F, Oktaviani K, Isra A, Aprilia R, Rabbani Q, Anggreani D, Setiadi I. 2015. The Impact of Smelter Construction in the Special Economic Zone of Southeast Sulawesi Province. Center for Data and Information Technology of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta.
Pratama Y, Wunas S, Arifin M. 2019. Perkembangan permukiman sekitar wilayah pertambangan nikkel Sorowako Kabupaten Luwu Timur. J Reg Marit City Stud 7: 274-280. DOI: 10.20956/jwkm.v7i0.1237. [Indonesian]
Prematuri R, Turjaman M, Sato T, Tawaraya K. 2020. The impact of nickel mining on soil properties and growth of two fast-growing tropical trees species. Intl J For Res 2020: 8837590. DOI: 10.1155/2020/8837590.
Prevedello JA, Winck GR, Weber MM, Nichols E, Sinervo E. 2019. Impacts of forestation and deforestation on local temperature across the globe. PLoS One 14 (3): e0213368. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213368.
Raivel, Hasrianto. 2023. Model of laterite nickel deposit in the Molawe area North Konawe Sub-district Southeast Sulawesi Province. Min Sci Technol J 2 (1): 70-81. DOI: 10.2021/minetech%20journal.v2i1.447.
Romijn E, Lantican CB, Herold M, Lindquist E, Ochieng R, Wijaya A, Murdiyarso D, Verchot L. 2015. Assessing change in national forest monitoring capacities of 99 tropical countries. For Ecol Manag 352 (7): 109-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.003.
Sobatnu F, Irawan FA, Salim A. 2017. Identifikasi dan pemetaan morfometri daerah aliran Sungai Martapura menggunakan teknologi GIS. Jurnal Gradasi Teknik Sipil 1 (2): 45-52. DOI: 10.31961/gradasi.v1i2.432. [Indonesian]
Southeast Sulawesi Government. 2021. Changes of the Southeast Sulawesi Provincial Medium Term Development Plan 2018-2023. Southeast Sulawesi Province Government, Kendari. [Indonesian]
Stracher GB. 2019. Environmental monitoring in the Jharia Coalfield, India: Vegetation indices and surface temperature measurements. In: GB Stracher (ed.). Coal and Peat Fires: A global Perspective, volume 5: Case Studies - Advances in Field and Laboratory Research. Elsevier, Netherlands. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-849885-9.00017-2.
Sushanti IR, Jauhari L, Abednego IA. 2020. Settlement's feasibility parameters in the village outer mining area. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 413: 012019. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/413/1/012019.
Ullah Z, Rashid A, Ghani J, Nawab J, Zeng XC, Shah M, Alrefaei AF, Kamel M, Aleya L, Abdel-Daim MM, Iqbal J. 2022. Groundwater contamination through potentially harmful metals and its implications in groundwater management. Front Environ Sci 10: 1021596. DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.1021596.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2022. Landsat 8-9 Collection 2 (C2) Level 2 Science Product (L2SP) Guide, Version 4.0. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey, South Dakota.
Waddington H, Snilstveit B, Hombrados J, Vojtkova M, Phillips D, Davies P, White H. 2014. Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes: A systematic review. Campbell Syst Rev 6: 335. DOI: 10.4073/csr.2014.6.
Wang T. 2016. Vegetation NDVI change and its relationship with climate change and human activities in Yulin, Shaanxi Province of China. J Geosci Environ Prot 4 (10): 28-40. DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.410002.
Wolff NH, Zeppetello LRV, Parsons LA, Aggraeni I, Battisti DS, Ebi KL, Game ET, Kroeger T, Masuda YJ, Spector JT. 2021. The effect of deforestation and climate change on all-cause mortality and unsafe work conditions due to heat exposure in Berau, Indonesia: A modelling study. Lancet Planet Health 5 (12): e882-e892. DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00279-5.
Zhang H, Wu D. 2022. The impact of transport infrastructure on rural industrial integration: Spatial spillover effects and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Land 11 (7): 1116. DOI: 10.3390/land11071116.
Zhang Y, Cheng L. 2023. The role of transport infrastructure in economic growth: Empirical evidence in the UK. Transp Policy 133: 223-233. DOI:10.1016/j.tranpol.2023.01.017.

Most read articles by the same author(s)