The diversity, distribution, biomass, and conservation status of ichthyofauna of the Singkil peat swamp in Aceh Province, Indonesia




Abstract. Razi NM, Nasir M, Khalidin K, Savira D, Najmi I, Mahfud M, Dermawan F, Fadli N, Muchlisin ZA. 2023. The diversity, distribution, biomass, and conservation status of ichthyofauna of the Singkil peat swamp in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 6661-6674. The land conversion of the Singkil peat swamp into oil palm plantations poses a significant threat to the aquatic ecosystem, with potentially detrimental consequences for fish biodiversity. Several reports showed that there was no data on fish diversity in the Singkil peat swamp despite the damage occurring in the area. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the diversity, distribution, biomass, and conservation status of Ichthyofauna in the Singkil peat swamp waters. Sampling was carried out at 13 locations from July 2023 to August 2023, and the samples were caught using gill nets, casting nets, fishing rods, and traps. A total of 934 samples were collected during the sampling, belonging to 39 species, 31 genera, and 26 families. The results showed that Cyprinidae was the most dominant family, with an average diversity index of 1.23, indicating the medium category. The average dominance index was 0.42, which was placed in the low category. Channa striata (Bloch, 1793) and Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas, 1770) had the highest frequency of occurrence and were found in seven locations out of 13 surveyed. Furthermore, these species were categorized as frequently found based on their availability. The average fish biomass was 288.75 kg/ha, with C. striata having the largest value. Among the 39 fish species obtained, 3 species were classified as near threatened, including Anguilla bicolor (McClelland, 1844), Mystus bimaculatus (Volz, 1904), and Kryptopterus minor (Roberts, 1989), while 1 invasive sample was recorded, namely Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in one location.


Barus TA. 2021. Diversity of fish in idanoi river and it’s relationship to physical factors of water chemistry. Intl J Ecophysiol 3 (1): 76-95. DOI: 10.32734/ijoep.v3i1.10024.
Bate GC, Mkhwanazi M, Simonis J. 2017. Blackwater in South African estuaries with emphasis on the Mgobezeleni Estuary in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Trans R Soc S Afr 73 (2): 133-142. DOI: 10.1080/0035919X.2017.1393471.
Batubara AS, Efizon D, Elvyra R, Rizal S, Muchlisin ZA. 2019. Population dynamics of the naleh fish Barbonymus sp. (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Nagan River Waters, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Jordan J Biol Sci 12 (3): 361-366.
Brandl SJ, Goatley CHR, Bellwood DR, Tornabene L. 2018. The hidden half: ecology and evolution of cryptobenthic fishes on coral reefs. Biol Rev 93 (4): 1846-1873. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12423.
Brower JE, Zar JH, Von-Ende C. 1998. Field and Laboratory Methods for General Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Brysiewicz A, Czerniejewski P, D?browski J, Formicki K, Wi?caszek B. 2022. Fish diversity and abundance patterns in small watercourses of the Central European Plain Ecoregion in relation to environmental factors. Water 14 (17): 2697. DOI: 10.3390/w14172697.
Calizza E, Rossi L, Careddu G, Sporta Caputi S, Costantini ML. 2021. A novel approach to quantifying trophic interaction strengths and impact of invasive species in food webs. Biol Invasions 23: 2093-2107. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-021-02490-y.
Cassemiro FA, Bailly D, da Graça WJ, Agostinho AA. 2018. The invasive potential of tilapias (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) in the Americas. Hydrobiologia 817: 133-154. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3471-1.
Dekar M, Sarong MA, Batubara AS, Muchlisin ZA. 2018. Ichthyofauna of Aceh River, Aceh Province, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci IOP Publishing 216 (1): 012024. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/216/1/012024.
Desrita D, Muhtadi A, Leidonald R, Sibagariang RDr, Nurfadillah N. 2020. Biodiversity of nekton in Batangtoru River and its tributaries in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21 (6): 2344-2352. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d210602.
Djufri D, Wardiah W, Muchlisin ZA. 2016. Plants diversity of the deforested peat-swamp forest of Tripa, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17 (1): 372-376. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d170150.
Fazillah MR, Afrian T, Razi NM, Ulfah M, Bahri S. 2020. Abundance, diversity and biomass of reef fish in Ujong Pancu Waters, Aceh Besar District. Jurnal Perikanan Tropis 7 (2): 134-144. DOI: 10.35308/jpt.v7i2.2397. [Indonesian]
FishBase. 2023. FishBase: A Global Information System on Fishes.
Froese R, Pauly D. 2021. Fish Base. World Wide Web Electronic Publication.
Gomes-Silva G, Cyubahiro E, Wronski T, Riesch R, Apio A, Plath M. 2020. Water pollution affects fish community structure and alters evolutionary trajectories of invasive guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Sci Total Environ 730: 138912. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138912.
Hapsari KA, Jennerjahn T, Nugroho SH, Yulianto E, Behling H. 2022. Sea Level rise and climate change acting as interactive stressors on development and dynamics of tropical peatlands in Coastal Sumatra and South Borneo since the last glacial maximum. Glob Change Biol 28 (10): 3459-3479. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.16131.
Hughes KA, Pescott OL, Peyton J et al. 2020. Invasive non?native species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Glob Chang Biol 26 (4): 2702-2716. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14938.
Hussin-Jasmin N, Azmir IA, Esa YB. 2021. Provisional checklists on blackwater fish from the Peat Swamp in Terengganu, West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 25 (6): 145-64. DOI: 10.21608/ejabf.2021.210853.
IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature]. 2023. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Kambikambi MJ, Kadye WT, Chakona A. 2021. Allopatric differentiation in the Enteromius anoplus complex in South Africa, with the revalidation of Enteromius cernuus and Enteromius oraniensis, and description of a new species, Enteromius mandelai (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). J Fish Biol 99 (3): 931-954. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14780.
Karlina I, Jaâ M. 2018. Comparative anatomy of labyrinth and gill of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell, 1822) and snakehead fish (Channa striata)(Bloch, 1793). Biol Med Natural Prod Chem 7 (2): 39-43. DOI: 10.14421/biomedich.2018.72.39-43.
Kartamihardja ES, Purnomo K, Fahmi Z. 2017. Struktur komunitas dan biomassa stok ikan di Danau Sembuluh dan Papudak, Kalimantan Tengah. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia 17 (4): 285-291. DOI: 10.15578/jppi.17.4.2011.285-291. [Indonesian]
Krebs CJ. 1989. Ecological Methodology. Harper and Row Publisher, New York.
Kulbicki M, Guillemot N, Amand M. 2005. A general approach to length-weight relationships for New Caledonian lagoon fishes. Cybium 29 (3): 235-252.
Lew S, Gli?ska-Lewczuk K, Lew M. 2019. The effects of environmental parameters on the microbial activity in peat-bog lakes. PLoS One 14 (10): e0224441. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224441.
Lin Y, Wang B, Wang N, Ouyang G, Cao H. 2019. Transcriptome analysis of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) infected by the grass carp reovirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 89: 337-344. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.013.
Macusi ED, Macusi ES, Jimenez LA, Catam-isan JP. 2020. Climate change vulnerability and perceived impacts on small-scale fisheries in eastern Mindanao. Ocean Coast Manag 189: 105143. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105143.
Magalhaes ALB, Daga VS, Bezerra LAV, Vitule JRS, Jacobi CM, Silva LGM. 2020. All the colors of the world: biotic homogenization-differentiation dynamics of freshwater fish communities on demand of the Brazilian aquarium trade. Hydrobiologia 847: 3897-3915. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-020-04307-w.
Magurran AE. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0.
McClanahan TR, Jadot C. 2017. Managing coral reef fish community biomass is a priority for biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 580: 169-190. DOI: 10.3354/meps12267.
Ministry of the Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. 2020. National Peat Ecosystem Protection and Management Plan. No. SK.246/Menlhk/Setjen/KUM.1/6/2020. [Indonesian]
Moi DA, Alves DC, Figueiredo BRS, Antiqueira PAP, de Mello FT, Jeppesen E, Romero GQ, Mormul RP, Bonecker CC. 2021. Non-native fishes homogenize native fish communities and reduce ecosystem multifunctionality in tropical lakes over 16 years. Sci Total Environ 769: 144524. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144524.
Muchlisin ZA, Akyun Q, Halim A, Rizka S, Sugianto S, Fadli N, Siti-Azizah M. 2015a. Ichthyofauna of Tripa Peat Wamp Forest, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Check List 11 (2): 1-9. DOI: 10.15560/11.2.1560
Muchlisin ZA, Hasri I, Batubara AS. 2018. A mini review on endemic and threatened fish Rasbora tawarensis in Lake Laut Tawar, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 216 (1): 012045. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/216/1/012045.
Muchlisin ZA, Nurfadillah N, Arisa II, Rahmah A, Putra DF, Nazir M, Zulham A. 2017. Fish Fauna of Lake Lauik Tawar and Lake Laulo, Simeulue Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (2): 752-757. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d180244.
Muchlisin ZA, Rinaldi F, Fadli N, Adlim M, Siti-Azizah MN. 2015b. Food preference and diet overlap of two endemic and threatened freshwater fishes, depik (Rasbora tawarensis) and kawan (Poropuntius tawarensis) in Lake Laut Tawar, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 8 (1): 40-49.
Muchlisin ZA. 2012. First report on introduced freshwater fishes in the waters of Aceh, Indonesia. Arch Pol Fish 20 (2): 129-135. DOI: 10.2478/v10086-012-0015-1.
Muchlisin ZA. 2013. Distributions of the endemic and threatened freshwater fish depik, Rasbora tawarensis Weber & de Beaufort, 1916 in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 35 (4): 483-488.
Nasir M, Muchlisin ZA, Saiful S, Suhendrayatna S, Munira M, Iqhrammullah M. 2021. Heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish harvested from the Krueng Sabee River Aceh Province, Indonesia. J Ecol Eng 22 (9): 224-231. DOI: 10.12911/22998993/141643.
Nasir M, Munira M, Muchlisin ZA. 2018. Fish fauna in the Krueng Geumpang River, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 139 (1): 012023. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/139/1/012023.
Nasution SH, Muchlis AM, Cinnawara HT. 2022. The abundance of alien fish species flowerhorn (Cichlasoma trimaculatum (Günther, 1867) in its fishing ground area at Lake Mahalona, South Sulawesi. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 1036 (1): 012103. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/1036/1/012103.
Ng CK-C, Ooi PA-C, Wong W-L, Khoo G. 2018. Ichthyofauna checklist (Chordata: Actinopterygii) for indicating water quality in Kampar River catchment, Malaysia. Biodiversitas 19 (6): 2252-2274. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d190634.
Nur FM, Gustiano R, Haryono H, Perdana AW. 2023. Status, distribution, and morphometric analysis of the genus Trichopodus in Sumatra, Indonesia. Eur Zool J 90 (2): 614-623. DOI: 10.1080/24750263.2023.2231017.
Onrizal O, Maulana MI. 2020. Analyses of land cover change of Singkil Swamp Wildlife Reserve in the last 20 years. J Phys: Conf Ser 1542 (1): 012063. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1542/1/012063.
Paada MY, Kadarini T, Ginanjar R, Johan O, Zamroni M, Zuhriyah S, Ardi I. 2022. Keragaman jenis ikan hias dan kondisi perairan di kesatuan hidrologis gambut Sungai Mempawah-Sungai Duri, Kalimantan Barat. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur 16 (4): 245-253. DOI: 10.15578/jra.16.4.2021.245-253. [Indonesian]
Perdana AW, Batubara AS, Nur FM, Syahril A, Muchlisin ZA. 2021. Morphometric analysis of three species gourami group (Osphronemidae) from Aceh waters, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 674 (1): 012087. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/674/1/012087.
PIU-SERT. 2013. A Scientific Study for Rehabilitation and Management of Tripa Peat Swamp Forest. Research Note of Stakeholders Workshop of Tripa Peat Swamp Forest Management, Banda Aceh. [Indonesian]
Ramoejane M, Weyl OLF, Swartz ER, Gouws G. 2020. Identifying multiple geographically restricted phylogeographic lineages of Moggel (Cyprinidae: Labeo umbratus) in South Africa. Afr J Aquat Sci 46 (2): 225-235. DOI: 10.2989/16085914.2020.1818546.
Reid AJ, Carlson AK, Creed IF, Eliason EJ, Gell PA, Johnson PTJ, Kidd KA, MacCormack TJ, Olden JD, Ormerod SJ, Smol JP, Taylor WW, Tockner K, Vermaire JC, Dudgeon D, Cooke SJ. 2019. Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity. Biol Rev 94 (3): 849-873. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12480.
Rohim N, Sulistiono S, Yulianda F. 2022. Aquatic environmental characteristic of singkil swamp wildlife reserve in Aceh Singkil Regency. Depik 11 (1): 7-15. DOI: 10.13170/depik.11.1.22863.
Ruysschaert D, Hufty M. 2020. Building an effective coalition to improve forest policy: Lessons from the coastal Tripa peat swamp rainforest, Sumatra, Indonesia. Land Use Pol 99: 103359. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.04.034.
Saadu H, Sutra J, Hashim AM, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ, Amal MNA. 2021. Diversity, composition, taxa biomarkers, and functional genes of fish gut microbes in peat swamp forests and its converted areas in North Selangor, Malaysia. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci 44 (3): 617-641. DOI: 10.47836/pjtas.44.3.07. [Indonesian]
Santoso E, Wahyudewantoro G. 2019. Biodiversity of fish species of Arut-Kumai Peat Waters, West Kotawaringin District, Central Kalimantan. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia 19 (2): 315-335. DOI: 10.32491/jii.v19i2.494. [Indonesian]
Shackleton RT, Biggs R, Richardson DM, Larson BMH. 2018. Social-ecological drivers and impacts of invasion-related regime shifts: Consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Environ Sci Pol 89: 300-314. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2018.08.005.
Stauffer Jr JR, Chirwa ER, Jere W, Konings AF, Tweddle D, Weyl O. 2022. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): A threat to native fishes of Lake Malawi? Biol Invasions 24 (6): 1585-1597. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-022-02756-z.
Su H, Su J. 2018. Cyprinid viral diseases and vaccine development. Fish Shellfish Immunol 83: 84-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.09.003.
Suparno S, Efendi Y, Arlius A, Eriza M, Bukhari B, Samsuardi S, Yennafri Y, Arafat MY. 2021. Penilaian indeks kesehatan terumbu karang di TWP Selat Bunga Laut, Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai. Jurnal Kelautan Tropis 24 (1): 71-80. DOI: 10.14710/jkt.v24i1.6449. [Indonesian]
Suyatna I, Sukarti K, Pagoray H, Kesuma AD, Butarbutar T, Raafi M, Suyatna MBB. 2021. Fish fauna of peatland waters in the middle Mahakam, Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. E3S Web Conf 322: 01018. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202132201018.
Thomy Z, Yulisma A, Harnelly E, Susilowati A. 2018. Molecular phylogeny of trees species in Tripa Peat Swamp Forest, Aceh, Indonesia inferred by 5.8 S nuclear gen. Biodiversitas 19 (4): 1186-1193. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d190402.
Thornton SA, Dudin P, Upton C, Harrison ME. 2018. Peatland fish of Sebangau, Borneo: diversity, monitoring and conservation. Mires Peat 22 (4): 1-25. DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2017.OMB.313.
Timorya Y, Abdullah A, Batubara AS, Muchlisin ZA. 2018. Conservation and economic status fishes in the Krueng Sabee River, Aceh Jaya District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 216 (1): 1-7. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/216/1/012044.
Wang J, He G, Fang H, Han Y. 2020. Climate change impacts on the topography and ecological environment of the wetlands in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra River. J Hydrol 590: 125419. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125419.
Wilson RM, Hough MA, Verbeke BA, Hodgkins SB, Tyson G, Sullivan MB, Brodie E, Riley WJ, Woodcroft B, McCalley C. 2022. Plant organic matter inputs exert a strong control n soil organic matter decomposition in a thawing permafrost peatland. Sci Total Environ 820: 152757. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152757.
Zadereev E, Lipka O, Karimov B, Krylenko M, Elias V, Pinto IS, Alizade V, Anker Y, Feest A, Kuznetsova D. 2020. Overview of past, current, and future ecosystem and biodiversity trends of inland saline lakes of Europe and Central Asia. Inland Waters 10 (4): 438-452. DOI: 10.1080/20442041.2020.1772034.
Zhang S, Zheng Y, Zhan A, Dong C, Zhao J, Yao M. 2022. Environmental DNA captures native and non-native fish community variations across the lentic and lotic systems of a megacity. Sci Adv 8 (6): eabk0097. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abk0097.
Zhou S, Wu N, Zhang M, Peng W, He F, Guo K, Yan S, Zou Y, Qu X. 2020. Local environmental, geo-climatic and spatial factors interact to drive community distributions and diversity patterns of stream benthic algae, macroinvertebrates and fishes in a large basin, Northeast China. Ecol Indicators 117: 106673. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106673.

Most read articles by the same author(s)