Biodiversity value of tree vegetation in Rainbow Forest Biosite, Ijen Geopark, East Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Sulistiyowati H, Hasanah EA, Siddiq AM, Ratnasari T, Dewi N, Kurnianto AS. 2024. Biodiversity value of tree vegetation in Rainbow Forest Biosite, Ijen Geopark, East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 25: 2670-2678. Biodiversity value representing the monetary estimation of the ecological value (ecoval) of species composing a forest is often applied for ecosystem change assessment. Tree community in Rainbow Forest Biosite (RFB) or Biosite Hutan Pelangi, Ijen Geopark, East Java, Indonesia was planted in 1937 and has experienced significant regrowth and changes over time by replacing one another until a mature forest becomes established. Yet, no empirical work has been done to assess the biodiversity value in RFB. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive estimation of the ecological value of tree vegetation in the RFB at Ijen Geopark. As many as 100 plots with size of 10×10 m each were established to acquire structural data of tree vegetation. Semi-destructive method was used to collect functional data on tree carbon. The result shows that RFB comprises 21 families, 34 genera, and 43 species. This forest has high diversity with dominant tree species are Trevesia sundaica Miq. and Dendrocnide stimulans (L.fil.) Chew due to the large number of individual and area coverage. Tree vegetation in RFB has a total basal area of 330 m2/ha and a total volume of 4,171.01 m3/ha, equivalent to an ecoval 182,439,286,595 IDR/ha in monetary terms. Three species including Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich. & A.Rich. and Cedrela odorata L., have unique existence, while others are quite unique (88.37%). Tree growth in RFB sequesters approximately 9,773.30 Mg CO2eq/ha while storing 873.17 Mg C/ha and producing 7,105.19 Mg O2eq/ha, equivalent to an ecoval of 11,401,417,827 IDR/ha. In total, the combined structural and functional biodiversity value of the explored vegetation is estimated to be 193,840,704,423 IDR/ha. By assigning this biodiversity value to RFB, authorities should focus on designing and implementing policies to maintain the existing tree species composition naturally and prevent deforestation.


Backer CA, van den Brink RC. 1968. Flora of Java I-III. Noordhoff, Groningen.
Barbour MG, Burk JH, Pitts WD. 1998. Terrestrial Plant Ecology, 3rd Edition. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
Baul TK, Chakraborty A, Nandi R, Mohiuddin M, Kilpeläinen A, Sultana T. 2021. Effects of tree species diversity and stand structure on carbon stocks of homestead forests in Maheshkhali Island, Southern Bangladesh. Carbon Balance Manag 16: 11. DOI: 10.1186/s13021-021-00175-6.
BBPPBPTH (Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan). 2013. Sekilas Tentang Kawasan Hutan dengan Tujuan Khusus Sumberwringin, Bondowoso. Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Yogyakarta. [Indonesian]
Boyd J, Banzhaf S. 2007. What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units. Ecol Econ 63: 616-626. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.01.002.
Chanlabut U, Nahok B. 2021. Forest structure and carbon stock of Suan Phueng Nature Education Park in Ratchaburi Province, Western Thailand. Biodiversitas 8: 4314-4321. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230856.
Chave J, Réjou-Méchain M, Búrquez A, Chidumayo E, Colgan MS, Delitti WB, Duque A, Eid T, Fearnside PM, Goodman RC, Henry M, Martínez-Yrízar A, Mugasha WA, Muller-Landau HC, Mencuccini M, Nelson BW, Ngomanda A, Nogueira EM, Ortiz-Malavassi E, Pélissier R, Ploton P, Ryan CM, Saldarriaga JG, Vieilledent G. 2014. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Glob Chang Biol 20 (10): 3177-3190. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12629.
Chen H, Costanza R, Kubiszewski I. 2022. Legitimacy and limitations of valuing the oxygen production of ecosystems. Ecosyst Serv 58: 101485. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2022.101485.
Christie M, Fazey I, Cooper R, Hyde T, Kenter JO. 2012. An evaluation of monetary and non-monetary techniques for assessing the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to people in countries with developing economies. Ecol Econ 83: 67-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.08.012.
Costanza R, de Groot R, Braat L, Kubiszewski I, Fioramonti L, Sutton P, Farber S, Grasso M. 2017. Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we still need to go? Ecosyst Serv 28: 1-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.008.
Dantas D, Terra MCNS, Pinto LOR, Calegario N, Maciel SM. 2021. Above and belowground carbon stock in a tropical forest in Brazil. Acta Sci Agron 43: e48276. DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v43i1.48276.
Darmawan A, Warta Z, Molidena E, Valla A, Firdaus MI, Winarno GD, Winarno B, Rusolono T, Tsuyuki S. 2022. Aboveground forest carbon stock in protected area: A case study of Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Indonesia. J Trop Biodivers Biotechnol 07 (01): jtbb.64827. DOI: 10.22146/jtbb.64827.
Fischer S, Moderow U, Queck R, Bernhofer C. 2023. Evaporation of intercepted rainfall–Comparing canopy water budget and energy balance related long term measurements at a Norway spruce site. Agric For Meteorol 341: 109637. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109637.
Gao T, Hedblom M, Emilsson T, Nielsen AB. 2014. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator. For Ecol Manag 330: 82-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.007.
Geopark Ijen. 2023. Ijen Geopark.
Hairiah K, Dewi S, Agus F, Velarde S, Ekadinata A, Rahayu S, van Noordwijk M. 2011. Measuring Carbon Stocks Across Land Use Systems: A Manual. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), SEA Regional Office, Bogor.
Hansen CP, Dien PQ, Tung HV. 2003. Assessment and analysis of two Pinus kesiya provenance trials in Vietnam. Results and Documentation No. 17. Danida Forest Seed Centre, Humlebaek.
Hoover CM, Smith JE. 2023. Aboveground live tree carbon stock and change in forests of conterminous United States: Influence of stand age. Carbon Balance Manag 18 (1): 7. DOI: 10.1186/s13021-023-00227-z.
Kolaman A, Yadid-Pecht. 2011. Quaternion structural similarity: A new quality index for color images. IEEE Trans Image Process 21 (4): 1526-1536. DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2011.2181522.
Liang S, Peng S, Chen Y. 2019. Carbon cycles of forest ecosystems in a typical climate transition zone under future climate change: A case study of Shaanxi Province, China. Forests 10 (12): 1150. DOI: 10.3390/F10121150.
Lohbeck M, Poorter L, Martínez-Ramos M, Bongers F. 2015. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Ecology 96: 1242-1252. DOI: 10.1890/14-0472.1.
Magurran AE. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0.
Manral U, Badola R, Hussain SA. 2018. Forest composition and structure under various disturbance regimes in the Alaknanda River Basin, Western Himalaya. Mt Res Dev 37 (3): 310-322. DOI: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-16-00109.1.
Matsuo T, Martínez-Ramos M, Bongers, F, van der Sande MT, Poorter L. 2021. Forest structure drives changes in light heterogeneity during tropical secondary forest succession. J Ecol 109: 2871-2884. DOI: 10.1111/13652745.13680.
Meili N, Manoli G, Burlando P, Carmeliet J, Chow WTL, Coutts AM, Roth M, Velasco E, Vivoni ER, Fatichi S. 2021. Tree effects on urban microclimate: Diurnal, seasonal, and climatic temperature differences explained by separating radiation, evapotranspiration, and roughness effects. Urban For Urban Green 58: 126970. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126970.
Mildrexler DJ., Berner LT, Law BE, Birdsey RA, Moomaw W R. 2020. Large trees dominate carbon storage in forests east of the cascade crest in the United States Pacific Northwest. Front For Glob Change 3: 594274. DOI: 10.3389/ffgc.2020.594274.
Naidu MT, Kumar OA. 2016. Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Asia-Pac Biodivers 9 (3): 328-334. DOI: 10.1016/j.japb.2016.03.019.
Nowak DJ, Hoehn R, Crane DE. 2007. Oxygen production by urban trees in the United States. Arboric Urban For 33 (3): 220-226. DOI: 10.48044/jauf.2007.026.
Pellat FP, Aguilar VS, Rodríguez AV, Sánchez CS, González MAB. 2023. Projective foliar cover and species richness of vascular plants in the State of Mexico. Revi Mex Cienc Forestales 14 (76): 94-119. DOI: 10.47163/agrociencia.v57i7.2927.
Ponce-Hernandez R, Koohafkan P, Antoine J. 2004. Assessing Carbon Stocks and Modelling Win-Win Scenarios of Carbon Sequestration through Land-Use Changes (Vol. 1). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome.
Raha D, Dar JA, Pandey PK, Lone PA, Khare SVPK, Khan ML. 2020. Variation in tree biomass and carbon stocks in three tropical dry deciduous forest types of Madhya Pradesh, India. Carbon Manag 11 (1): 1-12. DOI: 10.1080/17583004.2020.1712181.
Sahoo UK, Tripathi OP, Nath AJ, Deb S, Das DJ, Gupta A, Devi NB, Charturvedi SS, Singh SL, Kumar A, Tiwari BK. 2021. Quantifying tree diversity, carbon stocks, and sequestration potential for diverse land uses in Northeast India. Front Environ Sci 9: 724950. DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2021.724950.
Shin YJ, Midgley GF, Archer ERM, Arneth A, Barnes DKA, Chan L, Hashimoto S, Guldberg OH, Insarov G, Leadley P, Levin LA, Ngo HT, Pandit R, Pires APF, Pörtner HO, Rogers AD, Scholes RJ, Settele J, Smith P. 2022. Actions to halt biodiversity loss generally benefit the climate. Glob Chang Biol 28: 2846-2874. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.16109.
Sulistiyowati H, Buot IE. 2016. Ecological valuation tools to appraise biomass, necromass and soil organic matter in a natural forest ecosystem. J Wetl Biodivers 6: 97-108.
Thomte L, Shah SK, Mehrotra N, Saikia A, Bhagabati AK, 2023. Dendrochronology in the tropics using tree-rings of Pinus kesiya, Dendrochronologia 78: 126070. DOI: 10.1016/j.dendro.2023.126070.
Tuan NT, Rodríguez-Hernández DI, Tuan VC, Quy NV, Obiakara MC, Hufton J. 2022. Effects of tree diversity and stand structure on above-ground carbon storage in evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forests in Southeast Vietnam. Dendrobiology 88: 38-55. DOI: 10.12657/denbio.088.003.
Wang H, Wang R, Harrison SP, Prentice IC. 2022. Leaf morphological traits as adaptations to multiple climate gradients. J Ecol 110 (6): 1344-1355. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13873.
Xu Y, Zang R. 2023. Conservation of rare and endangered plant species in China. iScience 26 (2): 106008. DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2023.106008.
Zhang Y, Su T, Ma Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Zha N. 2022. Forest ecosystem service functions and their associations with landscape patterns in Renqiu City. PLoS ONE 17 (4): e0265015. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265015.

Most read articles by the same author(s)