Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species isolated from commercially sold steak (beef) and raw cow milk in Abakaliki, Nigeria




Abstract. Agumah NB, Effendi MH, Witaningrum AM, Tyasningsih W, Ugbo EN, Nwagwu CS, Ugbo IA. 2024. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species isolated from commercially sold steak (beef) and raw cow milk in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Biodiversitas 25: 950-956. This study aimed to ascertain antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species isolated from commercially sold steak (Beef) and raw cow milk in Abakaliki. Pools of milk samples and steak were bought at various outlets and analyzed using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that two species of Campylobacter, namely Campylobacter coli, were isolated from the samples. In raw cow milk, Campylobacter coli had a frequency of 65% higher than Campylobacter jejuni (20%). While in steak, C. coli was 34.53% higher than C. jejuni (19.10%). The antibiotic susceptibility profile for C. coli isolated from raw cow milk ranged from 61.54% to 100%, especially for trimethoprim and cephalexin. Resistance ranged from 0.00 to 38.46%. The highest resistance was recorded for tetracycline. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for C. coli isolated from steak recorded susceptibility values ranging from 60.53% to 86.84%. Cephalexin had the highest effect on C. coli isolates from steak. Resistance values ranging from 13.16% to 42.11% were recorded with Nalidixic acid as the least effective antibiotic. C. jejuni isolated from cow raw milk, susceptibility ranging from 0.00% to 100% was recorded, especially for Cefotaxime, Imipenem, Cephalexin, and Nalidixic acid. Resistance ranged from 0.00% to 100%, especially for Chloramphenicol and Kanamycin. For C. jejuni, susceptibility values ranged from 26.57% to 85.71%, with imipenem presenting the highest effect. Resistance values ranged from 23.81% to 71.43%. Gentamycin had the least effect. Adequate sanitation, personal hygiene, and appropriate use of antibiotics are highly recommended for food handlers and farmers to safeguard human health by reducing AMR challenges, even in milk and meat/meat products.


Akosua BK, Kwasi O, Frimpong EH, Karen AK. 2017.. Multidrug resistant Campylobacter in faecal and carcasses of commercially produced poultry. African Journal of Microbiology Research 11(7) 271-77. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2015.8325.
Al-Khresieh RO, Al-Daghistani HI, Abu-Romman SM, Abu-Niaaj LF. 2022. Genetic signature and serocompatibility evidence for drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni. Antibiotics (Basel), 11(10): 1421. DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics11101421
Ansharieta R, Ramandinianto SC, Effendi MH, Plumeriastuti H. 2021. Molecular identification of bla CTX-M and bla TEM genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coliisolated from raw cow's milk in East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22(4): 1600-1605. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220402.
Bai J, Chen Z, Luo K, Zeng F, Qu X, Zhang H, Chen K, Lin Q, He H, Liao M, Zhang J. 2021. Highly prevalent multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from a yellow-feathered broiler slaughterhouse in South China. Front. Microbiol., 12: 682741. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.682741
Burakoff A, Brown K, Knutsen J, Hopewell C, Rowe S, Bennett C, Cronquist A. 2018. Outbreak of fluoroquinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with raw milk consumption from a Herdshare Dairy - Colorado, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 67:146-8. DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6705a2.
Chatre P, Haenni M, Meunier D, Botrel M, Calavas D, Madec, J. 2010. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Cattle between 2002 and 2006 in France. J. Food Prot. 73(5):825–831. DOI: 10.4315/0362-028x-73.5.825.
Chukwu MO, Akebe LKA, Ubomba-Jaswa E, Obi L, Dewar JB. 2019. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Campylobacter species isolated from paediatric stool and water samples in the Northwest province, South Africa. Int J Env Res Public Health 16:2205. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16122205.
Dameanti FNAP, Yanestria SM, Widodo A, Effendi MH, Plumeriastuti H, Tyasningsih W, Sutrisno R, Akramsyah MA. 2023. Incidence of Escherichia coli producing Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in wastewater of dairy farms in East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 1143-1150. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d240254
Dhary AA. 2021. Isolation, biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from raw milk in Erbil city, Iraq. Italian Journal of Food Safety; 10:8589 DOI:10.4081/ijfs.2021.8589.
Doyle ME. 2015. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in the food supply. Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 12(4): 261–279.
Effendi MH, Harijani N. 2017. Cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from raw milk in East Java, Indonesia. Glob Vet 19(1):500-503. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gv.2017.500.503.
Effendi MH, Harijani N, Budiarto. 2017. Profile antibiotics resistance on Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk in Surabaya dairy farms, Indonesia. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication 1340-1344. DOI: 10.7456/1070DSE/108.
Effendi MH, Oktavianto A, Hastutiek P. 2018. Tetracycline resistance gene in Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Surabaya, Indonesia. Philip J Vet Med 55 (SI): 115-120.
Effendi MH, Hisyam MAM, Hastutiek P, Tyasningsih W. 2019. Detection of coagulase gene in Staphylococcus aureus from several dairy farms in East Java, Indonesia, by polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary World, 12(1), 68-71. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.68-71.
Hermans D, Pasmans F, Messens W, Martel A, Van Immerseel F, Rasschaert G, Heyndrickx M, Van Deun K, Haesebrouck F. 2012. Poultry as a host for the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 12(2): 89–98. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0676.
Iovine NM. 2013. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni. Virulence, 4(3): 230–240. DOI: 10.4161/viru.23753.
Jafari S, Ebrahimi M, Luangtongkum T. 2020. The status of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. Isolated from animals and human in Southeast Asia: A review. Thai J. Vet. Med., 50(4): 451–458. DOI: 10.56808/2985-1130.3048
Khan JA, Rathore RS, Abulreesh HH, Qais FA, Ahmad I. 2018. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry meat and related samples at retail shops in Northern India. Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 15(4): 218–225. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2017.2344.
Luangtongkum T, Jeon B, Han J, Plummer P, Logue CM, Zhang Q. 2009. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter: Emergence, transmission and persistence. Future Microbiol. 4:189-200. DOI: 10.2217/17460913.4.2.189.
Modi S, Brahmbhatt MN, Chatur YA, Nayak JB. 2015. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram, Veterinary World 8(1): 1-8. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1-8.
Mohammed DS, Junaidu AU, Oboegbulem SI, Egwu GO, Mogaji AA, Lawal M, Hassan Y. 2009. Isolation and prevalence of Campylobacter species in cattle from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Vet. Ital. 45(4):501-505.
Mungai EA, Behravesh CB and Gould LH. 2015. Increased outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk, United States, 2007-2012. Emerg Infect Dis 21:119-22. DOI: 10.3201/eid2101.140447.
Nohra A, Grinberg A, Marshall JC, Midwinter AC, Collins-Emerson JM, French NP. 2019. Shifts in the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in a sentinel region of New Zealand, following the implementation of food safety interventions by the poultry industry. Appl Environ Microbiol 86:e01753–e01719. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01753-19
Okunlade AO, Ogunleye AO, Jeminlehin FO, Ajuwape ATP. 2015. Occurrence of Campylobacter species in beef cattle and local chickens and their antibiotic profiling in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of microbiology research. 9(22):1473-1479. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2014.7105.
Powell LF, Lawes JR, Clifton-Hadley FA, Rodgers J, Harris K, Evans SJ, Vidal A. 2012. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks and on broiler carcases, and the risks associated with highly contaminated carcases. Epidemiol Infect 140:2233–2246. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268812000040
Prachantasena S, Charununtakorn P, Muangnoicharoen S, Hankla L, Techawal N, Chaveerach P, Tuitemwong P, Chokesajjawatee N, Williams N, Humphrey T, Luangtongkum T. 2016. Distribution and genetic profiles of Campylobacter in commercial broiler production from breeder to slaughter in Thailand. PLoS One, 11(2): e0149585. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149585
Premarathne JM, Anuar AS, Thung TY, Satharasinghe DA, Jambari NN, Abdul-Mutalib NA, Huat JY, Basri DF, Rukayadi Y, Nakaguchi Y, Nishibuchi M, Radu S. 2017. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia. Front. Microbiol. 8:2254. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02254.
Proietti PC, Guelfi G, Bellucci S, De Luca S, Di Gregorio S, Pieramati C, Franciosini MP. 2020. Beta-lactam resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni chicken isolates and the association between blaOXA-61 gene expression and the action of ?-lactamase inhibitors. Vet. Microbiol., 241: 108553. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108553.
Rozynek E, Antos-Bielska M, Dzierzanowska-Fangrat K, Szczepanska B, Trafny EA. 2010. Genetic similarity of Campylobacter isolates in humans, food, and water sources in Central Poland. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7:597–600. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2009.0407.
Rukambile E, Sintchenko V, Muscatello G, Kock R, Alders R. 2019. Infection, colonization and shedding of Campylobacter and Salmonella in animals and their contribution to human disease: a review. Zoonoses Public Health 66:562–578. DOI: 10.1111/zph.12611
Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Magaji AA, Rabiu Z. 2010. Study of Campylobacter in Raw Cow Milk in Sokoto State, Nigeria. British Journal of Dairy Sciences 1(1): 1-5.
Sanad YM, Closs GJ, Kumar A, LeJeune JT, Rajashekara G. 2013. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 10:229–236. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2012.1293
Sammarco ML, Ripabelli G, Fanelli I, Grasso MG, Tamburro M. 2010. Prevalence and biomolecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meat. J. Food Prot. 73(4):720-728. DOI: 10.4315/0362-028x-73.4.720.
Tyasningsih W, Ramandinianto SC, Ansharieta R, Witaningrum AM, Permatasari DA, Wardhana DK, Effendi MH, Ugbo EN. 2022. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk in East Java, Indonesia. Vet World 15 (8): 2021-2028. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2022.2021-2028.
Yun J, Greiner M, Höller C, Messelhäusser U, Rampp A, Klein G. 2016. Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Sci Rep 6:28442. DOI: 10.1038/srep28442
Varga C, Guerin MT, Brash ML, Siavic D, Boerlin P, Susta L. 2019. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from small poultry flocks in Ontario, Canada: A two-year surveillance study. PLoS One, 14(8): e0221429. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221429
Wibisono FJ, Sumiarto B, Untari T, Effendi MH, Permatasari DA, Witaningrum AM. 2021. Molecular identification of CTX gene of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli on layer chicken in Blitar, Indonesia. J Anim Plant Sci 31 (4): 954-959. DOI: 10.36899/JAPS.2021.4.0289.
Wieczorek K, Osek J. 2013. Characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolated from pig and cattle carcasses in Poland. Polish J. Vet. Sci. 16:501-508. DOI: 10.2478/pjvs-2013-0070.
Yanestria SM, Effendi MH, Tyasningsih W, Mariyono M, Ugbo EN. 2023. First report of phenotypic and genotypic (blaOXA-61) beta-lactam resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from broilers in Indonesia, Veterinary World, 16(11): 2210–2216. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2023.2210-2216.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>