Vegetation structure and floristic composition of tree species in the habitat of Scaphium macropodum in Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia




Abstract. Susilowati A, Elfiati D, Rachmat HH, Yulita KS, Hadi AN, Kusuma YS, Batu SAL. 2020. Vegetation structure and floristic composition of tree species in the habitat of Scaphium macropodum in Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 3025-3033. Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumee Ex K Heyne is a member of Malvaceae tree species and globally recognized as malva nut and locally known as ‘kembang semangkok’, ‘tempayang’, ‘merpayang’ or ‘kepayang’. The nut of S. macropodum has many benefits for medicinal purposes, yet destructive extraction of this tree species has led them to extinction. Among its natural distribution in Indonesia, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia is known as its original range, but there is limited information about the existence of this species. This study aimed to determine the vegetation structure of some tree species in the habitat of S. macropodum in Sikundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Purposive sampling technique was employed by creating line transect at some forest areas where the population of S. macropodum is known to grow naturally. Four line transects with each transect consisting of five plots with nested plots within were established to record data at four growth stages, resulting in 80 plots in total. The results showed that the Important Value Index (IVI) of S. macropodum within the floristic community at the studied area was 21.98, 13.85, 27.30, and 39.60 for tree, pole, sapling, and seedlings stages, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H) were 3.80, 3.70, 3.06 and 2.45, Index of evenness (E) are 0.94, 0.92, 0.86, 0.77 and the Index of Richness (R) are 11.76, 10.73, 6.59, 4.10 for tree, pole, sapling, and seedlings stages. This result suggests that the natural population of S. macropodum in Sikundur forest was still in good condition at all stages from tree to seedling.


Ai L, Wu J, Na C. 2012. Extraction, partial characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharide from boat-fruited Sterculia seeds. Int J Biol Macromol 51: 815-818
Arijani A. 2008. Vegetation structure and composition of the montane zone of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 9 (2).
Bann C. 1997. Economic analysis of tropical forest land use options, Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. EEPSEA research report series/IDRC. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia.
Barstow M. 2018. Gonystylus macrophyllus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018.
Chen HYH, Popadiouk RV. 2002. Dynamics of North American boreal mixedwoods. Environ. Rev 10: 137–166.
Dhage P, Kasture SB, Mohan M. 2015. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Stercu lia Scaphigera Hance (Sterculiaceae) seeds in mice and rats. Int J Biol Pharm Res 4(1): 35-45.
Dutta G, Devi A. 2013. Plant diversity, population structure, and regeneration status in disturbed tropical forests in Assam, northeast India. Journal of Forestry Research 24(4): 715?720.
Huy LQ, Werger MJA, Boot RGA, Nghia NH. 2012. Species Diversity Analysis of Tree Plant Community in Scaphium macropodum Forest Under Different Levels of Disturbance. Growth, Demography and Stand Structure of Scaphium Macropodum in Differently Managed Forests in Vietnam. [Ph.D Disertation]. Utrecht University.
Ismaini L, Lailati M, Rustandi SD. 2015. Analysis of plant composition and diversity on Mount Dempo, South Sumatra. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biodiversitas Indonesia, Indonesian society for biodiversity, Solo 1(6) [Indonesian].
Li C. 2015. Sterculia lychnophora Hance (Pangdahai, Malva Nut Tree), In: Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhang J. (eds) Dietary Chinese Herbs [M] Vienna Springer 535-542.
Lim TK. 2012. Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Springer Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Luo Y, Chen HYH. 2011. Competition, species interaction and ageing control tree mortality in boreal forests. J. Ecol 99:1470–1480.
Magurran AE. 2004. Meausuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell.
Malik ZA, Pandey R, Bhatt AB. 2016. Anthropogenic disturbances and their impact on vegetation in Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science 13:69e82.
Misra R. 1968. Ecology Work Book. Oxford and IBH, Calcutta.
Muin A, Purwita T. 2002. Light intensity for maintenance of natural regeneration and planting of ramin (Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz) in the former logged area HPH PT. Majalah Kehutanan Indonesia Edisi VI: 9-13.
Ogale SC, Kasture SB, Kasture VS. 2015. Screening of metha- nolic extract of Sterculia scaphigera seeds for ulcer protective and antioxidant activity. World. J. Pharm Pharm Sci 4(1): 1332-46.
Okuda T, Manokaran N, MatsumotoY, Niiyama K, Thomas SC, Ashton PS. 2013. Pasoh: ecology of a lowland rain forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Science & Business Media.
Oostig HJ. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. Am Midl Nat 28: 1-126.
Partomihardjo T, Prajadinata, S, Hidayat A. 2008. Current Status of Ramin Seeds Source in Sumatra. Technical Report ITTO PROJECT PO 426/06 Rev. 1 (F). Indonesia: Ministry of Forestry.
Phillips EA. 1959. Methods of vegetation study. Henry Holt. & Co., Inc. New York.Phonesena P and Wilkie P. 2008. Scaphium affine (Mast.) Pierre (Sterculiaceae) new for Thailand Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 36 61–9 .
Rastogi A. 1999. Methods in Applied Ethnobotany: Lesson from the Field. Kathmandu, Nepal. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sambas ED, Siregar M. 2017. Floristic and Forest Structural Study in Batangtoru Watershed, North Sumatra (Studi Floristik dan Struktur Hutan di Daerah Aliran Sungai Batangtoru, Sumatera Utara). Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 13(1): 21-31.
Sharma PD. 2003. Ecology and Environment. 7th ed. Rastogi Publication, New Delhi.
Smith WK, Berry ZC. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology 33:233-237.
Susilowati A, Rachmat HH, Elfiati D, Hasibuan MH. 2019. The composition and diversity of plant species in pasak bumi’s (Eurycoma longifolia) habitat in Batang Lubu Sutam forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 2(20): 413-418.
Sutisna UH, Soeyatman C, Wardani M. 1988. Analysis of composition of Tangkiling and Sampit peat swamp forest tree species. Central Kalimantan. Bul. Pen1.Hut. No.497: 4156.
Trimanto, Sofiah S. 2018. Exploration of flora diversity and recommending species for reclamation of coal mining with biodiversity concept in besiq bermai forest, east borneo. J. Trop. Life. Science 8(2).
Wilkie P. 2009. A revision of Scaphium (Sterculioideae, Malvaceae Sterculiaceae) Edinburgh. Journal of Botany 66: 283-328.
World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1998. Scaphium macropodum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T33255A9771604.
Yamada T, Suzuki E. 1996. Ontogenic change in leaf shape and crown form of a tropical tree species, Scaphium macropodum (Sterculiaceae) in Borneo. J.Plant Res 109: 2l-217.
Yamada T, Suzuki E. 1997. Change in spatial distribution during the life history of a tropical tree species, Scaphium macropodum (Sterculiaceae) in Borneo J. Plant Res ll0: 179-186.
Yamada T, Akira Itoh A, Takuo MZ,Yamakura, Suzuki E, Ashton PS. 2000. Local and geographical distributions for a tropical tree genus, Scaphium (Sterculiaceae) in the Far East. Plant Ecology 148: 23–30.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>