Floristic composition and diversity at Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) habitat in Tangkahan, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia




Abstract. Susilowati A, Rachmat HH, Elfiati D, Hidayat A, Hadi AN, Zaitunah A, Nainggolan D, Ginting IM. 2021. Floristic composition and diversity at Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) habitat in Tangkahan, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4448-4456. Dipterocarpus spp., or locally known as Keruing, is a wood-producing tree and has high economic value. Keruing also produces derivative products in oil and oleoresin, which are widely used as raw materials for medicines and perfumes. Keruing natural population has been severely declining caused by habitat alteration and also over exploitation. Therefore, information on the composition and diversity of the floristic community at their habitat is important as an initial step in designing conservation actions. This study aims to determine the floristic composition and diversity at the keruing habitat in the Tangkahan area, Gunung Leuser National Park (Gunung Leuser NP). A line transect has been used to establish a purposive sampling in particular forest areas where the population of the keruing is known to grow naturally. Four line transects, each with five nested plots, totaling 110 plots, were established to gather data at four growth stages. The results found 47 species at the seedling stage, 43 species at the sapling stage, 48 species at the pole stage and 65 species at the tree stage. There were three species of keruing in the research location, namely Dipterocarpus haseltii, Dipterocarpus costulatus and Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth with low IVI values ??at each stage. D. haseltii was only found at the seedling, pole and tree stage with IVI values ??of 0.32, 0.30, and 6.90, respectively. D. costulatus was only found at the tree level with an IVI value of 3.43, while D. elongatus found at the sapling and tree stage with an IVI of 0.30 and 3.42, respectively. The diversity index in the research location was in the medium category at the seedling, sapling, and pole levels with a value of 2.96, 2.86, and 2.92, respectively and was classified as high at the tree level with a value of 3.18. The evenness index (E') in all growth stages is high or evenly distributed with the value of E' > 0.75. The species diversity in research location classified into medium-high category although in each stage showing dynamic on species domination. Disturbed habitat due to illegal logging and land conversion caused a problem on keruing regeneration. Conservation efforts, including active monitoring keruing occurrence, ex-situ conservation, and artificial regeneration, are needed to avoid keruing from extinction. 


Aisling JD, Baeten JM, Baet BD. 2018. Ecological diversity: measuring the unmeasurable. Mathematics 6 (119): 1-28.
Ashton PS. 1982. Dipterocarpaceae. In: Van Steenis CGGJ, editor. Flora Malesiana, Series 1, Spermatophyta. The Hague (The Netherlands): Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Netherland.
Ashton PS. 1988. Dipterocarp biology as a window to the understanding of tropical forest structure. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 347-370.
Aslam MS, Ahmad MS, Mamat AS. 2015. A phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological review of genus dipterocarpus. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 7 (4): 27-38.
Bagchi R, Philipson CD, Slade EM, Hector, Phillips A, Villanueva JF, Lewis OT, Lyal CHC, Nilus R, Madran A, Scholes JD, Press MC. 2011. Impacts of logging on 45 density-dependent predation of dipterocarp seeds in a south east asian rainforest. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366: 3246–3255. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0034
Barbour GM, Burk JK, Pitts WD. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. New York: The Benyamin/Cummings Publishing Company.
Barstow, M. 2018. Hopea dryobalanoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T36287A68070349.
Biswas SR, Mallik AU. 2010. Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. Ecology 91 (1): 28-35.
Boer E, Ella AB. 2001. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No 18 Plants Producing Exudates. Internat Forestry Rev 3 (2): 164-164.
Born J, Bagchi R, Burslem DFRP, Nilus R, Tellenbach C, Pluess AR. 2015. Differential responses of dipterocarp seedlings to soil moisture and microtopography. Biotropica 47 (1): 49-58. Doi.10.1111/btp.12180
Chen YS, Chen CJ, Yan W, Ming H, Kong LD. 2017. Antihyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory actions of vaticaffinol isolated from Dipterocarpus alatus in hyperurisemic mice. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicine 15 (5): 330-340. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1009.2017.00330
Chua SC, Potts MD. 2018. The role of plant functional traits in understanding forest recovery in wet tropical secondary forests. Sci Total Environ 642: 1252–1262. doi.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.397
Curtis JT, McIntosh RP. 1950.The interrelations of certain analytical and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31 (3): 434-455.
De Wilde WJJO, Duyfjes BE. 1996. Vegetation, Floristic and Plant Biogeography in Gunung Leuser National Park. In: Leuser A Sumatran Sanctuary. Van Schaik and J. Supriatna.Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati Indonesia. Depok.
Denny, Susilo A. 2019. Species composition in the habitat of dipterocarpus gracilis ulolanang kecubung nature reserve. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 391 (2019) 012067. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/391/1/012067
Dey A, Akhter A. 2020. Tree Species Composition and natural regeneration status in South Eastern Bangladesh. Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology 5(1): 27-34. DOI: 10.22146/jtbb.49988
Do HTT, Grant JC, Zimmer HC, Trinh BN, Nichols JD. 2020. Site conditions for regeneration of climax species, the key for restoring moist deciduous tropical forest in Southern Vietnam. PLoS ONE 15 (5): 1-20. e0233524.
Eshaghi RJ, Valadi G, Salehzadeh O, Maroofi H. 2018. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on plant composition, plant diversity and soil properties in oak forests, Iran. Journal of Forest Science 64: 358–370.
Ghazoul J. 2016. Dipterocarp biology, ecology, and conservation. Oxford University Press. New York.
Harrison RD, Nagamitsu T, Momose K, Inoue T. 2005. Flowering phenology and pollination of Dipterocarpus (Dipterocarpaceae) in Borneo. Malayan Nature Journal 57 (1): 67 – 80.
Heriyanto NM, Bismark M. 2013. Autekologi Dipterocarpus elongates Korth di cagar Biosfer Pulau Siberut, Sumatera Barat. Forest Rehabilitation Journal 2(1): 1-14.
Heriyanto NM, Samsoedin I, Bismark M. 2019. Biodiversity flora and fauna in the region forest Bukit Datuk Dumai Riau Province. Jurnal sylva lestari 7: 82-94. DOI:
Heyne K. 1987. Tumbuhan berguna Indonesia (Translate). Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya. Jakarta.
Hidayat IW, Noviady I, Nurlaeni Y. 2017. Ex situ conservation effort through the inventory of plant diversity in Mount Seblat, Bengkulu. Biosaintifika 9 (3): 513-522. DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v9i3.9668
Jumawan J, Flores FL, Aragan RT, Villamar JMC, Sagut JS, Taguse HC, Genecera J, Banas GG, Depamaylo AMV. 2015. Diversity assessment and spatial structure of mangrove community in a rehabilitated landscape in Hagonay, Davao Del Sur, Philippines. Adv Environ Sci Bioflux 7: 475-482.
Kartawinata K. 1983. Jenis-jenis Keruing. Lembaga Biologi Nasional – LIPI. Bogor.
Kashe K, Teketay D, Heath AMM, Mathope T, Khululo GM, Tsholofelo C, Mpofu C. 2021. Diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody species in different habitats in Maun Educational Park, northern Botswana. Journal of Forest Research 26 (4): 294-302. DOI: 10.1080/13416979.2021.1896069
Kim H, Yang WS, Htwe KM, Lee MN, Kim YD, Yoon KD, Lee BH, Lee S, Cho JY. 2021. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. Ethanol extract has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo by targeting the IRAK1/AP-1 Pathway. Molecules 26 (9): 1-13.
Kusuma Y, Wihermanto, Risna R, Ashton P. 2013. Rediscovery of the supposedly extinct Dipterocarpus cinereus. Oryx 47 (3): 324-324. doi:10.1017/S0030605313000756
Kusumo A, Bambang AN, Izzati M. 2016. Struktur vegetasi kawasan hutan alam dan hutan rerdegradasi di Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan 14 (1): 19-26. doi:10.14710/jil.14.1.19-26
Malik J, Santoso A. 2011. Karakteristik kayu lamina dari kayu keruing berminyak setelah di ekstrak. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan 29 (3): 271-277.
Malik ZA, Pandey R, Bhatt AB. 2016. Anthropogenic disturbances and their impact on vegetation in Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science 13 (1): 69-82. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-015-3533-7
Maua JO, Tsingalia HM, Cheboiwo J, Odee D. 2020. Population structure and regeneration status of woody species in a remnant tropical forest: A case study of South Nandi forest, Kenya. Global Ecology and Conservation 21: 1-18.
Mohammed EMI, Elhag AMH, Ndakidemi PA, Treydte AC. 2021. Anthropogenic pressure on tree species diversity, composition, and growth of Balanites aegyptiaca in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Plants 10: 1-18. 10.3390/plants10030483
Muhtadi. 2014. Ilmu Kimia Tumbuhan Keruing (Dipterocarpus) Famili Dipterocarpacea. Lingkar Media, Jogjakarta.
Naidu MT, Suthari S, Yadav PBF. 2021. Measuring ecological status and tree species diversity in Eastern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 1-11.
Nayasilana IN, Utami SS, Atmoko SS, Andayani N. 2015. Vegetation analysis in primary forest and ex-logged forest, Ketambe Research Station, Gunung Leuser Nasional Park, Southeast Aceh. Bio-site 1 (1): 6-20.
Newman MF, Burgess PF, Whitmore TC. 1999. Pedoman Identifikasi Pohon-pohon Dipterocarpaceae Pulau Kalimantan. PROSEA Indonesia. Bogor.
Nurtjahja K, Kelana TB, Suryanto D, Priyani N, Rio G, Putra DP, Arbain D. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of endemic herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to bacteria and yeast. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 20: 177-181.
Oostig HJ. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. Am Midl Nat 28: 1-126.
Pandiangan E, Ardhiyansah M, Rusdiana O. 2017. Analysis of change in land cover to support the management of Gunung Leuser National Park. J Regional City Planning 28 (2): 81-98.
Phillips EA. 1959. Methods of vegetation study. Henry Holt and Co, Inc. New York.Phonesena P and Wilkie P. 2008. Scaphium affine (Mast.) Misra R. 1968. Ecology Work Book. Oxford and IBH, Calcutta.
Poor EE, Jati VIM, Imron MA, Kelly MJ. 2019. The road to deforestation: Edge effects in an endemic ecosystem in Sumatra, Indonesia. PLoS ONE 14 (7).
Purwaningsih. 2004. Review: Sebaran ekologi jenis-jenis dipterocarpaceae di Indonesia. Jurnal Biodiversitas 5 (2): 89-95. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d050210
Rachmat HH, Subiakto A, Wijaya K, Susilowati A. 2018. Alarming call from Mursala Island, North Sumatra: The urgent task of conserving the previously reported extinct of Dipterocarpus cinereus. Biodiversitas 19: 399-405.
Rastogi A. 1999. Methods in Applied Ethnobotany: Lesson from the Field. Kathmandu, Nepal. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Kathmandu, Nepal.
Rugayah, Yulita KS, Arifiani D, Rustiami H, Girmansyah D. 2017. Tumbuhan Langka Indonesia 50 Jenis Tumbuhan Terancam Punah. LIPI Press. Jakarta.
Sambas EN, Siregar M. 2004. Flora of Alas River Bank, Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park. BioSmart 6 (1): 33-38.
Sari N. 2014. Kondisi tempat tumbuh pohon keruing (Dipterocarpus spp) di kawasan Ekowisata Tangkahan, Taman Nasional Gunung leuser, Sumatera Utara. Jurnal Penelitian Dipterocarpa 8 (2): 65-72.
Senathilake KS, Karunanayake EH, Samarakoon SR, Tennekoon KH, de Silva ED, Adhikari A. 2017. Oleanolic acid from Antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite setaria digitata in vitro. Experimental Parasitology Journal 177: 13-21.
Seng, ODJ. 1990. Berat jenis dari jenis-jenis kayu Indonesia dan pengertian beratnya kayu untuk keperluan praktek. Pengumuman No. 13. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan. Bogor.
Sharma PD. 2003. Ecology and Environment. 7th ed. Rastogi Publication, New Delhi.
Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ. 2002. Sumber Daya Nabati Asia Tenggara. In: Pohon Penghasil Kayu Perdagangan yang Utama. PROSEA-Balai Pustaka Jakarta.
Sri EK. 2011. Keanekaragaman Tumbuhan Pangan di Hutan Dataran Rendah Ketambe, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser. in Berkala Penelitian Hayati Edisi Khusus, 5A.
Steur G, René WV, Martin JW, Pita AV. 2020. Shedding light on relationships between plant diversity and tropical forest ecosystem services across spatial scales and plot sizes. Ecosystem Services 43.
Subiakto A, Rachmat HH, Wijaya K. 2016. Dipterocarps: Walk Through the Remnant Forest In Riau-Sumatera. Forda Press. Bogor.
Susanti R, Pratama BA, Rahmawati K, Suzuki E. 2021. Preliminary study on plant ecology in Tangkahan Area, Gunung Leuser National Park. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 762 (2021) 012020. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/762/1/012020
Susilowati A, Rachmat HH, Hidayat A, Elfiati D, Yulita KS, Ginting IM. 2021. Ex-situ conservation effort for Dipterocarpus spp through the seedling collection and nursery management. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 782. (2021) 042028. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/782/4/042028
Wang C, Cheng H, Wang S, Wei M, Du D. 2020. Plant community and the influence of plant taxonomic diversity on community stability and invasibility: A case study based on Solidago canadensis L. Science of The Total Environment 768.
Wardhani M, Heriyanto NM. 2015. Autekologi damar asam shorea hopeifolia (f. Heim) symington di taman nasional bukit barisan selatan, lampung. Buletin Plasma Nutfah 21: 89-98. DOI:
Warsodirejo PP, Hasibuan AS, Listiana L, Ritonga A. 2020. Abundance Study of Koompassia excelsa in Maintaining Conservation of Ecosystems in Tangkahan Langkat Nature Reserve, North Sumatra. Bioscience 4: 21-30. DOI: 10.24036/0202041107563-0-00
Wiratno. 2013. Dari Penebang Hutan Liar ke Konservasi Leuser Tangkahan dan Pengembangan Ekowisata Leuser. YOSL-OIC dan UNESCO Jakarta. Medan.
Yang WS, Lee BH, Kim SH, Kim HG, Yi YS, Htwe KM, Kim YD, Hong S, Lee WS, Cho JY. 2013. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus ethanol extract strongly suppresses in vitro macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and in vivo acute gastritis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 146:873-880.
Yulia HM. 2018. Kajian Populasi dan Analisis Spasial Tanaman Endemik Dipterocarpus littoralis Blume Di Pulau Nusakambangan. [Thesis]. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya. [Indonesian]

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>