Short Communication: Rediscovery of Psychotria species, subspecies, and varieties collected in the 1990s and new records of Antirhea benguetensis (Elmer) Valeton and Ixora longifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) in Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, Luzon, Philipp
Abstract. Biag RD, Alejandro GJD. 2020. Short Communication: Rediscovery of Psychotria species, subspecies and varieties collected in the 1990s and new records of Antirhea benguetensis (Elmer) Valeton and Ixora longifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) in Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, Luzon, Philippines. Biodiversitas 21: 4524-4535. Tagged as the “last great forest” for it possesses the widest remaining tropical rainforest in the island of Luzon, the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park (NSMNP) in the province of Isabela is worth-conserving. Owing to the species richness and high levels of endemism in the said area, it was identified as a key biodiversity area for conservation and protection. After a botanical exploration in the park conducted from April to August 2019, 89 Rubiaceae species were found dominated by the genus Psychotria. These Psychotria species were then separated from other genera and were morphologically examined and eventually identified. This study, therefore, primarily aims to provide the list of Psychotria species that were collected long before, particularly in the 1990s and still exist in NSMNP continuously battling against the catastrophic activities within the forest. Eight Philippine endemic Psychotria species and varieties were recollected. As to their current conservation status following IUCN criteria, we herein propose these species, except for Psychotria pubilimba, to be treated as Data Deficient (DD) since there is lack of distributional data for these species. Additional surveys are to be conducted on the areas where these species were previously collected. In this way, information on population size and threats to the species can also be obtained. P. pubilimba is restricted to Cagayan and Isabela. Only one mature individual has been found; hence, a Narrow Endemic Species (NES). Being an NES, it was then assessed as Critically Endangered (CR) based on IUCN rules. It is also worth noting that new records of Antirhea benguetensis and Ixora longifolia species were found in the park, particularly in Divilacan, Isabela. The former has been regarded as Luzon endemic, known to be distributed only in Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Rizal, and Bataan. The latter, on the other hand, is mostly distributed in the provinces of Visayas and Mindanao, and only Masbate and Palawan for Luzon. Moreover, this flora has been recorded in other parts of the world like China, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam.
Alejandro GJD, Liede-Schumann S. 2003. The Philippine Rubiaceae genera. Updated synopsis in INTKEY databases of the DELTA system. Blumea 48: 261-277.
Alejandro GJD. 2007. The current status of the Philippine Rubiaceae. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (1): 47-60. https://doi.org/10.3860/pjsb.v1i1.908.
Banag CI. 2014. Systematics of the Philippine Endemic Ixora L. (Rubiaceae, Ixoreae). [Dissertation]. University of Bayreuth, Germany.
Banag CI, Thrippleton T, Alejandro GJD, Reineking B, Liede-Schumann S. 2015. Bioclimatic niches of selected endemic Ixora species on the Philippines: predicting habitat suitability due to climate change. Plant Ecology 216:1325-1340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-015-0512-6.
Banag C, Mouly A, Alejandro G, Bremer B, Meve U, Grimm G, Liede-Schumman S. 2017. Ixora (Rubiaceae) on the Philippines – cross¬road or cradle? BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 131. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-0974-3
Beentje H. 2016. The Kew Plant Glossary: an illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Chaw SM, Darwin SP. 1992. A systematic study of the Paleotropical genus Antirhea (Rubiaceae: Guettardeae). Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 28: 25-118.
Chen T, Zhu H, Chen J, Taylor, CM, Ehrendorfer F, Lantz H, Funston AM, Puff C. 2011. Rubiaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (Eds.) Flora of China, 19. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden, Beijing, and St. Louis, pp. 57-368.
Commerson P, Jussieu ALD. 1789. Genera Plantarum 204.
Davis A, Bridson D, Jarvis C, Govaerts R. 2001. The typification and characterization of the genus Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 35-42.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2001.tb02366.x
Davis AP, Sohmer SH. 2004. Current status of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in the Philippines.
Davis AP, Govaerts F, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA. 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96: 6878. https://doi.org/10.3417/2006205
De Block P. 1998. The African species of Ixora (Rubiaceae-Pavetteae). Opera Bot Belg 9:1–217.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources II. 2017. Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park Profile.
Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources. 2016. Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, The country's biggest natural forest.
Govaerts R. 2011. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available from: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ (accessed 18 February 2020).
Guingab MVD, van Welzen PC. 2018. Woody Plants of the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and Vicinity. Isabela State University Publishing, Prints & Solutions.
Isik K. 2011. Rare and endemic species: Why are they prone to extinction? Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 411-417
Linnaeus C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Stockholm p. 110.
Linnaeus C. 1759. Systema nature ed 10, vol. 2. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii, 929, 1364.
Koopowitz H, Sohmer S, Thornhill A, Perez G. 1998. Deforestation and plant species extinctions in the Philippines: Psychotria as an example. In: -I Peng C, Lowry P (Eds) Rare, Threatened and Endangered Floras of Asia and the Pacific Rim. Academica Sinica Monograph Series No. 16, Taipei, 111-121.
Mabuwaya Foundation. 2018. The Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park. Mabuwaya Foundation, Inc.
Manns, U, Bremer B. 2010. “Towards a better understanding of intertribal relationships and stable tribal delimitations within Cinchonoideae s.s. (Rubiaceae).” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 21–39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.002
Mouly A, Razafimandimbison S, Khodabandeh A, Bremer B. 2009. Phylogeny and classification of the species-rich pantropical showy genus Ixora (Rubiaceae-Ixoreae) with indications of geographical monophyletic units and hybrids. American Journal of Botany 96(3): 686–706. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800235
Nepokroeff M, Sytsma KJ. 1999. Speciation in cloud forest members of Psychotria section Notopleura (Rubiaceae). In: Nadkarni, N., Wheelwright, N. (Eds.), Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ordas JAD, Pinarok NAA, Romeroso RB, Alejandro GJD, Banag-Moran CI. 2019. A checklist of Rubiaceae species from Eastern Samar, Visayas, Philippines. Check List 15 (2): 2953-12. https://doi.org/10.15560/15.2.295
PAGASA. 2011. Available at: http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/climate_change/.accessed 25 March 2020.
Pelser P, Barcelona J, Nickrent D. 2011. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. http://www.philippineplants.org. accessed 1 February 2020
Posa MRC, Diesmos AC, Sodhi NS, Brooks TM. 2008. Hope for threatened tropical biodiversity: lessons from the Philippines. BioScience 58:231-240.
Razafimandimbison S, Taylor C. Wikström N, Pailler T, Khodabandeh A, Bremer B. 2014. Phylogeny and generic limits in the sister tribes Psychotrieae and Palicoureeae (Rubiaceae): evolution of schizocarps in Psychotria and origins of bacterial leaf nodules of the Malagasy species. American Journal of Botany. 1102-1126.
Salamanes, JJDP. 2014. Novelties in the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae) inferred from molecular (nrDNA) and morphological data. Master's Thesis. University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines.
Sohmer SH. 1988. The nonclimbing species of the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Botany 1: 1-339.
Sohmer SH, Davis AP. 2007. The Genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in the Philippine Archipelago. Botanical Research. Institute of Texas Press, Texas.
Sopsop LB, Buot IE Jr. 2009. The endangered plants of Palawan Island, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences, 18(2): 251-279.
Tan LM. 2003. The Sierra Madre Mountain Range: Global Relevance, Local Realities.
The Plant List. 2018. The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species. V. 1.1. http://theplantlist.org/.
Wulff AS, Hollingsworth PM, Ahrends A, Jaffre´ T, Veillon J-M, L’Huillier L, Fogliani B. 2013. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73371. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073371
Yusuf AA, Francisco HA. 2009. Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping for Southeast Asia. Singapore: Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia, 32p.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- CECILIA S. CORDERO, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Medicinal plants used by the indigenous Ati tribe in Tobias Fornier, Antique, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 2 (2021)
- MARK LLOYD G. DAPAR, ULRICH MEVE, SIGRID LIEDE-SCHUMANN, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Ethnomedicinal appraisal and conservation status of medicinal plants among the Manobo tribe of Bayugan City, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 8 (2020)
- MAE ANN R. BATUYONG, MICHAEL A. CALARAMO, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Inventory of Rubiaceae species in Mt. Pao Range, Ilocos Norte, Northwestern Luzon, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 8 (2021)
- MAE ANN R. BATUYONG, MICHAEL A. CALARAMO, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, A checklist and conservation status of vascular plants in the Limestone forest of Metropolitan Ilocos Norte Watershed Forest Reserve, Northwestern Luzon, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 9 (2020)
- RACHEL D. BIAG, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of Rubiaceae species in Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape, Luzon, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 9 (2021)
- ANNE RETUERMA-DIONEDA, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Inventory of Annonaceae in Abasig-Matogdon-Mananap Natural Biotic Area, Camarines Norte, Bicol, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 23 No. 4 (2022)
- JENNIFER S. DANILA, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Pollen morphology and infrageneric classification of selected Callicarpa species (Lamiaceae) from the Philippines and Borneo , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 12 (2020)
- JENNIFER S. DANILA, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, Leaf geometric morphometric analyses of Callicarpa and Geunsia (Lamiaceae) in the Malesian region , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 10 (2021)
- VINCE ADRIAN D. ILAGAN, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, DAVID JEFFERSON B. PARAGUISON, SJHON MIGUEL W. PEROLINA, GABRIEL R. MENDOZA, ANDREI B. BOLINA, RUBY RATERTA, MARIANITA B. VALES, GIL JOSHUA D. SUAREZ, FREDDIE A. BLASCO, Ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular authentication of medicinal plants used by the Manobo and Mamanwa tribes of Surigao del Sur, Philippines , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 23 No. 6 (2022)