Spatio-temporal variability of temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration of sea surface in Bali Strait, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

ADI WIJAYA
UMI ZAKIYAH
ABU BAKAR SAMBAH
DADUK SETYOHADI

Abstract

Abstract. Wijaya A, Zakiyah U, Sambah AB, Setyohadi D. 2020. Spatio-temporal variability of temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration of sea surface in Bali Strait, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 5283-5290. The Bali Strait is influenced by seasonal and inter-annual systems. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are climate variabilities that affect water conditions. The knowledge about influence of ENSO and IOD variations on the fertility of waters in the Bali Strait is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of seasonal and inter-annual variability on the variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Chlorophyll-a (SSC) in the Bali Strait. This study applied SST and SSC data collected from the Aqua/Terra MODIS satellite, as well as the ENSO and IOD indices during March 2000-December 2019. The results described that the effect of ENSO on SST and SSC was low and IOD on SST and SSC was quite high. The effect was quite high between IOD and SST anomaly of-0.401. Seasonal variations indicate the abundance of high SSC and low SST in the southeast monsoon (JJA) which characterizes upwelling. Meanwhile, in the northwest monsoon (DJF), SSC was low and SST was high which characterizes downwelling. This condition cannot separate from the monsoonal process that occurred in the Bali Strait. The inter-annual variation showed that in the strong El Nino period and IOD (+) triggers a negative SST anomaly and a positive SSC results in strong upwelling, while in the strong La Nina period and strong IOD (-) triggers a positive SST anomaly and a negative SSC results in downwelling. The inter-annual variability of SSC influenced by IOD rather than ENSO. This condition indicates that the ENSO/IOD event changes the period of SSC concentration.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Behera, Swadhin K., Jing-jia Luo, and Toshio Yamagata. 2008. “Unusual IOD Event of 2007.” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.35, L14S11, DOI:10.1029/2008GL034122.
Berlianty, Dessy and Tetsuo Yanagi. 2011. “Tide and Tidal Current in the Bali Strait, Indonesia.” Mar Res Indonesia 36(2):25–36.
Gaol, J. Lumban, Wudianto, B. P. Pasaribu, D. Manurung, and R. Endriani. 2014. “The Fluctuation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Derived from Satellite Imagery and Catch of Oily Sardine (Sardinella lemuru) in Bali Strait.” Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences I(I):24–30.
Gordon, A. L., J. Sprintall, H. M. Van Aken, D. Susanto, S. Wijffels, R. Molcard, A. Ffield, W. Pranowo, and S. Wirasantosa. 2010. “The Indonesian Throughflow during 2004–2006 as Observed by the INSTANT Program.” Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 50(2):115–28.
Hendiarti, Nani, Herbert Siegel, and Thomas Ohde. 2004. “Investigation of Different Coastal Processes in Indonesian Waters Using SeaWiFS Data.” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 51(1–3):85–97.
Horii, Takanori, Hideaki Hase, Iwao Ueki, and Yukio Masumoto. 2008. “Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole.” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.35, L03607, DOI:10.1029/2007GL032464.
Iskandar, Iskhaq, Wijaya Mardiansyah, Dedi Setiabudidaya, and Pradanto Poerwono. 2014. “Equatorial Oceanic Waves and the Evolution of 2007 Positive Indian Ocean Dipole.” Terr.Atmos.Ocean.Sci., 25, 847–56, DOI:10.3319/TAO.2014.08.25.01(Oc).
Iskandar1, I., S. A. Rao, and T. Tozuka. 2009. “Chlorophyll? a Bloom along the Southern Coasts of Java and Sumatra during 2006.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 30(3):663–71.
Iskandar, Iskhaq, Putri Adia Utari, Deni Okta Lestari, Qurnia Wulan Sari, M. Yusup Nur Khakim, Indra Yustian, and Zulkifli Dahlan. 2017. “Evolution of 2015 / 2016 El Niño and Its Impact on Indonesia Evolution of 2015 / 2016 El Niño and Its Impact on Indonesia.” AIP Conf Proc.1857,080001-1-080001-5; DOI:10.1063/1.4987095.
Mcphaden, M. J. 2008. “Evolution of the 2006–2007 El Nino: the role of intraseasonal to interannual time scale dynamics.” Advances in Geosciences. 14, 219–230, 2008.
Muhammad, Fadhlil Rizki, Yudha Kristanto, and Imam Wahyu Amanullah. 2017. “Karakteristik Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Ketika El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).” Wahana Fisika 2(2):76–99.
Ningsih, Nining Sari, Noviani Rakhmaputeri, and Agung B. Harto. 2013. “Upwelling Variability along the Southern Coast of Bali and in Nusa Tenggara Waters.” Ocean Science Journal 48(1):49–57.
Pertami, N. D., I. W. Nurjaya, A. Damar, and M. F. Rahardjo. 2019. “The Spatial Pattern Relationship between SST and Chlorophyll-a in Lemuru Bleeker, 1853 Catches in Bali Strait, Indonesia.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 278:012058.
Qu, Tangdong, Yan Du, Jane Strachan, Gary Meyers, and Julia Slingo. 2005. “Sea Surface Temperature and its Variability in the Indonesia Region.” Oceanography 18(4):50–61.
Rao, Suryachandra A., Jing-Jia Luo, Swadhin K. Behera, and Toshio Yamagata. 2009. “Generation and Termination of Indian Ocean Dipole Events in 2003, 2006 and 2007.” Climate Dynamics 33(6):751–67.
Rao, Suryachandra A. and T. Yamagata. 2004. “Abrupt Termination of Indian Ocean Dipole Events in Response to Intraseasonal Disturbances.” Geophys.Res. Lett. 31. L19306, DOI:10.1029/2004GL020842 .
Ratnawati, Herlina Ika, Rahmat Hidayat, Ahmad Bey, and Tania June. 2016. “Upwelling Di Laut Banda Dan Pesisir Selatan Jawa Serta Hubungannya Dengan ENSO Dan IOD.” Omni-Akuatika 12(3):119–30.
Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata. 1999. “A Dipole Mode in the Tropical Indain Ocean.” Nature 401(September):360–63.
Sambah, Abu B., Fusanori Miura, Hanggar P. Kadarisman, and Aida Sartimbul. 2013. “Remote Sensing Application for Sardinella Lemuru Assessment: A Case Study of the South Waters of Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia.” P. 85250M in Remote Sensing of the Marine Environment II, edited by N. Ebuchi, R. J. Frouin, T. Saino, and D. Pan. SPIE.
Sartimbul, Aida, Hideaki Nakata, Erfan Rohadi, Beni Yusuf, and Hanggar Prasetyo Kadarisman. 2010. “Variations in Chlorophyll-a Concentration and the Impact on Sardinella Lemuru Catches in Bali Strait, Indonesia.” Progress in Oceanography 87(1–4):168–74.
Sartimbul, Aida, Erfan Rohadi, Mochammad Firdaus Ali, and Zulfan Khaidar. 2018. “Anomaly Technique for Expression the Indian Ocean Dipole in South Java Sea.” International Journal of Engineering & Technology 7(4.44):28.
Sudjana, M. M. 1992. Metode Statistik. Tarsito. Bandung.
Sukresno, Bambang, Denarika Jatisworo, and Denny Wijaya Kusuma. 2018. “Analisis Multilayer Variabilitas Upwelling Di Perairan Selatan Jawa.” Jurnal Kelautan Nasional 13(1):15–25.
Susanto, R. Dwi, Arnold L. Gordon, and Quanan Zheng. 2001. “Upwelling along the Coasts of Java and Sumatra and Its Relation to ENSO.” Geophysical Research Letters 28(8):1599–1602.
Susanto, R. Dwi and John Marra. 2005. “Effect of the 1997/98 El Nino on Chlorophylla a Variability Along the Southern Coasts of Java and Sumatra.” Oceanography 18(4):124–27.
Susanto, R. Dwi, Thomas S. Moore, and John Marra. 2006. “Ocean Color Variability in the Indonesian Seas during the SeaWiFS Era.” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7(5):n/a-n/a.
Susilo, Eko. 2015. “Variabilitas Faktor Lingkungan Pada Habitat Ikan Lemuru di Selat Bali Menggunakan Data Satelit Oseanografi dan Pengukuran Insitu.” Omni-Akuatika XIV(20):13–22.
Susilo, Eko and Teja Arief Wibawa. 2016. “Pemanfaatan Data Satelit OSeanografi Untuk Memprediksi Daerah Penangkapan Ikan Lemuru Berbasis Rantai Makanan Dan Pendekatan Statistik GAM.” Jurnal Kelautan Nasional 11(2):77–78.
Yang, Guang, Xia Zhao, Yuanlong Li, Lin Liu, Fan Wang, and Weidong Yu. 2019. “Chlorophyll Variability Induced by Mesoscale Eddies in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean.” Journal of Marine Systems (July):103209.
Zakiyah, Umi, E. Y. Herawati, and Kusriani. 2015. “Assessment of Trophic Status in Bali Strait.” Research Journal of Life Science 02(03):189–98.