Compounds detection and inhibition activity of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Schizophyllum commune on some cancer cell types




Abstract. Ekowati N, Mumpuni A, Ratnaningtyas NI, Maharning A. 2020. Compounds detection and inhibition activity of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Schizophyllum commune on some cancer cell types. Biodiversitas 21: 5865-5871. Schizophyllum commune a potential fungus utilized as a drug, including a cancer drug expectant. In Indonesia, the fungus' capability to suppress the growth of certain types of cancer cells has not been widely reported. The purposes of this study were (i) to determine the bioactive compound group from S. commune using organic solvents chloroform and ethyl acetate, (ii) to determine the IC50 values ??of S. commune bioactive compounds using cancer cell lines HeLa, MCF7, T47D and WiDr, (iii) to find out the mechanism of apoptosis. The research was carried out experimentally using a pure culture of four types of cancer cell lines. Anticancer activity test was conducted by a cytotoxic test using MTT [3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol -2-yl) -2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], and apoptosis test. Data analysis was performed with linear regression analysis, and the apoptosis test was analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the bioactive compounds produced by S. commune are alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. S. commune bioactive compounds potentially inhibit the four cancer cell lines used with IC50 values ??ranging from 5.44 to 420.48 ug/mL. Best result was obtained from S. commune extract of chloroform in T47D cells with IC50 = 5.44 ug/mL and are able to induce apoptosis.


Abo-Elmag HI. 2014. Evaluation and Optimization of Antioxidant Potentiality of Chaetomium madrasenseAUMC 9376. J Genet Engineer Biotechnol 12: 21-26.
Ackermann T, Tardito S. 2019. Cell culture medium formulation and its implications in cancer metabolism. Trends Cancer 5(6): 329-332
Arifni FR, Hasan AEZ, Hasim, Julistiono H, Husnawaty, Bermawie N, and Riyanti EI. 2017. Anticancer Activities of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Soursop Leaves (Annona muricata L.) against WiDr Cancer Cells. Annual Research & Review in Biology 18(5): 1-11
Ashraf MA. 2020. Phytochemicals as Potential Anticancer Drugs: Time to Ponder Nature’s Bounty. BioMed Research International, 2020:1-7,
Biswas G, Sarkar S, Acharya K. (2010). Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morg. Latin Am J Pharm 29(4): 549-553
Brady HJM. 2007. Apoptosis Methods and Protocols. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey.
Cai L. 2014. Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques - Thin Layer Chromatography. The University of South Carolina. DOI: 10.1002/9780470089941.et0603s08.
Ekowati N, Mumpuni A, Muljowati JS. 2017. Effectiveness of Pleurotus ostreatus Extracts Through Cytotoxic Test and Apoptosis Mechanism of Cervical Cancer Cells. Biosaintifika 9 (1) 48-155
Faridur RM, Rezaul KM, Farhadul IM, Rowshanul HM, and Toffazal HM. 2010. Phytochemical and cytotoxic investigation and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). IRJP 1(1): 342-345.
Filip R, Shaw T, Nishida A, and Pezacki JP. 2019. Fungal natural alkaloid schizocommunin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. Med Chem Commun 10: 985–990 |
Ghosh SK, Sanyal T, Bera T. 2020. Anticancer Activity of Solvent Extracts of Hexogonia glabra against Cervical Cancer Cell Lines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 21 (7), 1977-1986.
Hikam AR, Ekowati N, Hernayanti. 2019. The Cytotoxic and Apoptosis Effects of Chloroform Extracts of Auricularia auricula on Cervical Cancer Cells. Biosaintifika 11 (1): 32-38
Ivanova TS, Krupodorova TA, Barshteyn VY, Artamonova AB, Shlyakhovenko VA. 2014. Anticancer Substances Of Mushroom Origin. Exp Oncol 36 (2): 58–66
Khatun S, Islam A, Cakilcioglu U, and Chatterjee NC. 2012. Research on Mushroom as a Potential Source of Nutraceuticals: A Review on Indian Perspective. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 2(1): 47-73.
Kumar S, Jyotirmayee K, Sarangi M. 2013. Thin Layer Chromatography: A Tool of Biotechnology for Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Medicinal Plants. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 18(1): 126-132
Lee HH, Lee S, Lee K, Shin YS, Kang H, and Cho H. 2015. Anticancer effect of Cordyceps militaris in human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells via cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 23(35): 1-8
Liu RH, Chen S, Lu LM, Tsai W, Tsai C, Yang C, and Tzeng YM. 2014. Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B. l. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14(207): 1-10
Meiyanto E, Susidarti RA, Handayani S, Rahmi F. 2008. Ethanolic Extract of Areca Catechu (Areca catechu L.) seeds is able to inhibit proliferation and stimulate apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Indonesian Pharmacy Magazine, 19 (1): 12-19.
Menakongka A, Ruaengsritanyakij S, Sripayak S, Suthiphongchai T. 2019. Antiproliferation and Anti-migration of Schizophyllum commune extracts on Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line. Vajira Medical Journal: Journal of Urban Medicine 63(5): 325-335
Meerloo JV. 2011. Cell sensitivity assays: the MTT assay. Cancer cell culture: methods and protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Amsterdam University Medical Center Amsterdam, Netherlands
Moharib SA, Maksoud NAL, Ragab HM, and Shehata MM. 2014. Anticancer Activities of Mushroom Polysaccharides on ChemicallyInduced Colorectal Cancer in Rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (07): 54-63
Morris HJ, Beltrán Y, Llauradó G, Batista PL. Perraud-Gaime I, García N, Moukha S, Bermúdez RC, Cos P, Hernández E, Diez JC. 2017. Mycelia from Pleurotus sp. (oyster mushroom): a new wave of antimicrobials, anticancer and antioxidant bio-ingredients. Int J Phytocos Nat Ingred 4(3): 1-9
Patel S. and Goyal A. 2012. Recent developments in mushrooms as anticancer therapeutics: a review. Biotech, 2:1–15
Rodriguez AR, Carmona NM, Villafan BR, Koirala N, Rocha D & Sanchez S. 2018. Interplay Between Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphate Utilization In The Control of Secondary Metabolite Production in Streptomyces. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 111(5): 761-781.
Song FQ, Liu Y, Kong XS, Chang W, Song G. 2013. Progress on Understanding the Anticancer Mechanisms of Medicinal Mushroom: Inonotus Obliquus. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 14 (3): 1571-1578
Teoh YP & Don MM. 2012. Nutrient Improvement Using Statistical Optimization for Growth of Schizophyllum Commune, and Its Antifungal Activity Against Wood Degrading Fungi of Rubberwood. Biotechnol Prog, 28(1): 232-241.
Teoh YP, Don MM & Ujang S. 2017. Production of Biomass by Schizophyllum commune and Its Antifungal Activity towards Rubberwood-Degrading Fungi. Sains Malaysiana, 46(1), pp.123-128.
Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. 2015. Global Cancer Statistics. 2012. Ca Cancer J Clin, 65:87–108
Wasser SP, Weiss AL (1999). Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspectives. Int J Med Mushrooms 1: 31-62
Yao HM, Wang G, Liu YP, Rong MQ, Shen CB, Yan XW, Luo DX, Lai R. 2016. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels. Chinese journal of natural medicines 14(9): 661-670