Abstract. Herawati VE, Pinandoyo, Ariyati RW, Rismaningsih N, Windarto S, Prayitno SB, Darmanto YS, Radjasa OK. 2021. Effects of Caulerpa lentillifera added into culture media on the growth and nutritional values of Phronima pacifica, a natural fish-feed crustacean Biodiversitas 22: 424-431. Phronima pacifica is a microcrustacean commonly used as natural feed in fish farming as it has high nutrient contents and is suitable based on larval fish mouth gap size and mass cultivation capacity. However, P. pacifica is not produced optimally and its supply is inadequate, so that P. pacifica culturing techniques need to be improved. The culture of P. pacifica is mostly done using sea grape seaweed (Caulerpa lentillifera). The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal stocking density of C. lentillifera added into media culture on the growth and nutritional values of P. pacifica. We applied a complete random design experiment with four treatments of stocking density of C. lentillifera (i.e., 0 g/m2 (Control), 20 g/m2, 40 g/m2, and 60 g/m2) with 3 replicates for each treatment. The following parameters were analyzed, namely specific growth rate (SGR) of C. lentillifera, and the growth, biomass, growth rate, proximate analysis, and amino and fatty acid concentrations of P. pacifica. This study found that the addition of C. lentillifera into culture media significantly enhanced the growth of P. pacifica. The highest effect on the growth was observed in the treatment of 60 g/m2 with C. lentillifera SGR value of 4.76 ± 0.12%/day, and P. pacifica growth rate, population density and biomass of 4.41 ± 0.12 ind/day, 53.81 ± 8.79 ind/L, and 1.14 ± 0.14 g, respectively. Similarly, the highest protein and fat contained in P. pacifica was obtained in the treatment of 60 g/m2 with 60.23% protein and 10.24% fat. Furthermore, the highest fatty acid profile was C20: 5n-3 of 13.23% ± 0.08% and amino acid profile of 45.23% ± 0.01%. The application of the optimal stocking density of C. lentillifera in culture media could increase the growth and nutritional quality of P. pacifica which in turn could enhance aquaculture productivity.
Ali Ahmadi, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh, Naser Agh, and Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi. 2017. Effects of Enriched Artemia with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetoceros gracilis on Growth Performance, Stress Resistance and Fatty Acid Profile of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(2): 669-673.
AOAC. 2005. Official methods of analysis 18th ed. Arlington, V.A Association of Official Analytical Chemist PP. 806-842.
Aoki, M. K., C. Matsumoto-Ohsima., E. Hirose., and J. Nishikawa. 2013. Mother-young Cohabitation in Phronimella elongate and Phronima spp. (Amphipoda, Hyperiidea, Phronimidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93(6): 1553-1556.
Azizah, R. 2006. Experimentation of Various Methods of Latoh Cultivation (Caulerpa racemosa) as an Effort to Support Production Continuity. Marine Sciences, 11 (2): 101-105.
Baeza-Rojano, E., Calero-Cano, S., Hachero-Cruzado, I. and Guerra-García, J.M. 2013. A Preliminary Study of the Caprella scaura Amphipod Culture for Potential Use in Aquaculture. Journal of sea research 83: 146-151.
Bishop, R. and Geiger, S. 2006. Phronima energetics: Is There a Bonus to The Barrel. Crustaceana, 79(9): 1059-1070.
Damle, D.K., & Chari M.S. (2011). Performance Evaluation of Different Animal Wastes on Culture of Daphnia sp. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 6:57.
Darmawati, D. 2015. Optimization of Seedling Spacing on Caulerpa sp. Growth in Laguruda Waters, Takalar Regency. Octopus: Journal of Fisheries Science, 4 (1), pp.337-344.
Dharmawan, J. 2014. Population Growth of Daphnia sp. on Aquaculture Media with Addition of Wastewater to Dumbo Catfish Cultivation (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822). Biology Bulletin, 13(1): 57-63.
Elder, L.E. and Seibel, B.A. 2015. The Thermal Stress Response to Diel Vertical Migration in The Hyperiid Amphipod Phronima sedentaria. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 187: 20-26.
Fattah, M. H., M. Saenong., Asbar., and S. R. Busaeri. 2014. Production of Endemic Microcrustacean (Phronima sp.) to Subtitute Artemia salina in Tiger Prawn Cultivation. Journal of Aquaculture Research Development, 5(5): 1-5.
Fattah, M.H., Busaeri, S.R. and Munandar, A. 2019. Survival Rate and Quality of Phronima Suppa (Phronima sp) Zoea with the Cryptobiosis Application. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 391, No. 1, p. 012076). IOP Publishing.
Fogg GE. 1965. Algae Culture and Phytoplankton Ecology. The University of Winconsin Press. Madisson Milk. n.d
Herawati, V.E., Hutabarat, J. and Radjasa, O.K. 2014. Nutritional Content of Artemia sp. Fed with Chaetoceros calcitrans and Skeletonema costatum. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 21(4), pp.166-172.
Herawati V. E., Hutabarat J., and Radjasa O. K. 2015. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured with Organic Fertilizer Resulted from Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 22(4):169-173.
Herawati, V.E., R. A. Nugroho., Pinandoyo., Y.S. Darmanto., and J. Hutabarat. 2017. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 55 12004.
Herawati, V.E., R. A. Nugroho., Pinandoyo., Y.S. Darmanto., and J. Hutabarat. 2018. The Effect of Fermentation Time with Probiotic Bacteria on Organic Fertilizer as Daphnia magna Cultured Medium towards Nutrient Quality, Biomass Production and Growth Performances Enhancement. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 116: 1-11. DOI :10.1088/1755-1315/116/1/012089.
Herawati, V.E., Pinandoyo, P., Rismaningsih, N., Darmanto, D., Hutabarat, J. and Radjasa, O.K. 2020. The effect of probiotic bacteria in culture media using organic fertilizer for population density, biomass production and nutrient quality of Phronima sp. as natural feed. Aquaculture Research, 51(2), pp.836-843.
Jiménez-Prada, P., Hachero-Cruzado, I., Giráldez, I., Fernández-Diaz, C., Vilas, C., Cañavate, J.P. and Guerra-García, J.M. 2018. Crustacean Amphipods from Marsh Ponds: A Nutritious Feed Resource with Potential for Application in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture. PeerJ, 6, p.e4194.
Krebs, C.J. 1972. The experimental analysis of distribution and abundance. Ecology. New York: Harper and Row, pp.1-14.
Lim C. M., Aksoy Y., & Klesius P. 2011. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia, North America. Indonesian Journal of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, 73:188-193.
Lowry, J.K. & Myers, A.A. 2017. A Phylogeny and Classification of The Amphipoda with The Establishment of The New Order Ingolfiellida (Crustacea: Peracarida). Zootaxa, 4265(1), pp.1-89.
Monroig, Ó., Tocher, D. R., and Navarro, J. C. 2013. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine invertebrates: Recent advances in molecular mechanisms. Marine Drugs 11:3998–4018.
Moore, P.G. and Eastman, L.B. 2015. The tube-dwelling lifestyle in crustaceans and its relation to feeding. The natural history of the Crustacea, 2, pp.35-77.
Moosa, M. K., & Aswandy, I. 1984. Reef Shrimp (Panulirus spp.) From Indonesian Fisheries [Udang Karang (Panulirus spp) dari Perikanan Indonesia]. LONLIPI. Jakarta. 38pp.
Mosquera-Murillo Z. & E. J. Peña-Salamanca. 2016. Effect of salinity on growth of the green alga Caulerpa sertularioides (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) under laboratory conditions. Hidrobiológica, 26 (2): 277-282.
Nafisi Bahabadi, M., Torfi Mozanzadeh, M., Agh, N., Ahmadi, A., and Yaghoubi, M. 2018. Enriched Artemia with L-lysine and DL-methionine on growth performance, stress resistance, and fatty acid profile of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 30(4), pp.325-336.
Ovie, S.I. and Ovie, S.O. 2006. Moisture, protein, and amino acid contents of three freshwater zooplankton used as feed for aquacultured larvae and postlarvae.
Preciado, I., Cartes, J.E., Punzón, A., Frutos, I., López-López, L. and Serrano, A. 2017. Food web functioning of the benthopelagic community in a deep-sea seamount based on diet and stable isotope analyses. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 137, pp.56-68.
Punnarak, P., Jarayabhand, P. and Piumsomboon, A. 2017. Cultivation of harpacticoid copepods (families harpacticidae and laophontidae) under selected environmental conditions. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 51(4), pp.278-285.
Sulistijo, M.S. 2002. Seaweed Cultivation Research (Macro Algae/Seaweed) in Indonesia. Center for Research in Indonesian Oceanography. Jakarta.
Tocher, D. R. 2015. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and aquaculture in perspective. Aquaculture 449:94–107.
Valverde, J.C., Martínez-Llorens, S., Vidal, A.T., Jover, M., Rodríguez, C., Estefanell, J., Gairín, J.I., Domingues, P.M., Rodríguez, C.J. and García, B.G. 2013. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods. Aquaculture International, 21(2), pp.413-433.
Widianingsih., A. Ridho., R. Hartati., and Harmoko. 2008. Nutrient Content of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Different Media. Journal of Marine Sciences, 13(3): 167-170.
Zengin H., Vural N., and Çelik, V. 2013. Comparison of Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Starved and Fed Rainbow Trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13(3):397-405. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v13_3_02.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- MUHAMMAD EVY PRASTIYANTO, APRILIA INDRA KARTIKA, SRI DARMAWATI, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, Bioprospecting of bacterial symbionts of sponge Spongia officinalis from Savu Sea, Indonesia for antibacterial potential against multidrug-resistant bacteria , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 23 No. 2 (2022)
- VIVI ENDAR HERAWATI, PINANDOYO, Y.S. DARMANTO, NURMANITA RISMANINGSIH, SETO WINDARTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, The effect of fermented duckweed (Lemna minor) in feed on growth and nutritional quality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 7 (2020)
- RHESI KRISTIANA, MADA TRIANDALA SIBERO, MACELLYNE YOHANNA FARISA, DIAH AYUNINGRUM, DIO DIRGANTARA, MUHAMMAD HANAFI, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, AGUS SABDONO, AGUS TRIANTO, Antibacterial potential of nudibranch-associated bacteria from Saparua and Nusa Laut Islands, Indonesia , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 20 No. 7 (2019)
- VIVI ENDAR HERAWATI, PINANDOYO, SETO WINDARTO, NURMANITA RISMANINGSIH, PUTUT HAR RIYADI, Y.S. DARMANTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, Nutritional value and growth performance of sea worms (Nereis sp.) fed with Hermetia illucens maggot flour and grated coconut (Cocos nucifera) as natural feed , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 11 (2020)
- AGUS TRIANTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, MADA TRIANDALA SIBERO, AGUS SABDONO, DWI HARYANTI, WA ODE MARDHIYYAH ZILULLAH, ANNISA RORO SYANINDYTA, MUHAMMAD SYAIFUDIEN BAHRY, PRASTYO ABI WIDIANANTO, MUHAMAD HELMI, HARYO DWITO ARMONO, SUPRIADI, YASUHIRO IGARASHI, The effect of culture media on the number and bioactivity of marine invertebrates associated fungi , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 21 No. 1 (2020)
- VIVI ENDAR HERWATI, TITA ELFITASARI, NURMANITA RISMANINGSIH, PUTUT HAR RIYADI, WORAPORN TARANGKOON, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, SETO WINDARTO, Analysis of growth and nutritional quality of sea worms (Nereis virens) as a mass cultured natural feed on different substrate media thicknesses , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 8 (2021)
- ALDI PRATAMA WIJAYA, AGUS SABDONO, MADA TRIANDALA SIBERO, AGUS TRIANTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, Antimicrobial activity of nudibranch Chromodoris lineolata associated bacteria against skin diseases pathogens from Jepara Coastal Waters, Indonesia , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 23 No. 4 (2022)
- DIAH AYUNINGRUM, RHESI KRISTIANA, AYUNDA AINUN NISA, SEPTHY KUSUMA RADJASA, SAKTI IMAM MUCHLISSIN, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, AGUS SABDONO, AGUS TRIANTO, Bacteria associated with tunicate, Polycarpa aurata, from Lease Sea, Maluku, Indonesia exhibiting anti-multidrug resistant bacteria , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 20 No. 4 (2019)
- AGUS TRIANTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, SUBAGIYO, HARTUTI PURNAWENI, MUHAMMAD SYAIFUDIEN BAHRY, RIGNOLDA DJAMALUDIN, AIYEN TJOA, IAN SINGLETON, KAREN DIELE, DARREN EVAN, Potential of fungi isolated from a mangrove ecosystem in Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia: Protease, cellulase and anti-microbial capabilities , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 22 No. 4 (2021)
- MADA TRIANDALA SIBERO, EVAN HANSEL FREDERICK, AGUS SABDONO, DIAH PERMATA WIJAYANTI, DELIANIS PRINGGENIES, OCKY KARNA RADJASA, DEWI SESWITA ZILDA, RETNO MURWANI, First report of seaweed-associated yeast from Indonesia: Species composition and screening of their polysaccharides-degrading enzymes , Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity: Vol. 23 No. 3 (2022)