Flowering ability and expression of the shLFY (shallot-LFY) gene in several Indonesian shallot (Allium cepa, aggregatum group) varieties




Abstract. Irawan J, Dinarti D, Sudarsono, Maharijaya A. 2021. Flowering ability and expression of the shLFY (shallot-LFY) gene in several Indonesian shallot (Allium cepa, aggregatum group) varieties. Biodiversitas 22: 5468-5474. Indonesian shallots (Allium cepa, Aggregatum group) have different flowering abilities. The direction of seed development in the form of true seed shallot (TSS) makes the study of shallot flowering important to support its breeding program. Flowering genes’ presence and their expression demonstrate their significance in inducing flowering. This study aimed to determine the ability of the shLFY gene expression in four shallots varieties (Bima Brebes, Batu Ijo, Biru Lancor, and Sumenep) and the level of expression in each variety during the formation of flower primordia. The research was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with varieties as a single factor, for qRT-PCR relative expression data analysis using ??CT comparative method. The results showed that there were differences in flowering ability and the expression value of the shLFY gene between the tested shallot varieties. These differences also were shown within each variety when the umbels of varying ages were tested. There was a positive correlation between the ability to flower and the shLFY gene expression value. The greater shLFY gene expression will be followed by greater flowering ability. Bima Brebes was the variety with the highest flowering ability (91.66%) and highest shLFY gene expression value between other varieties.  


Amasino, R. 2010. Seasonal and developmental timing of flowering. Plant J. 61: 1001–1013.
Baurle I, Dean C. 2006. The timing of developmental transitions in plants. Cell. 125(4): 655-664.
Bergonzi S, Albani MC. 2011. Reproductive competence from an annua and parennial perspective. J Exp Bot. 62(13): 4415-4422.
Blazquez MA, Soowal LN, Leei, Weigel D, 1997. LEAFY expression and flower initiation in Arabidopsis. Development. 124:3835-3844.
Brewster JL. 2008. Onions And Other Vegetable Alliums. CABI Publishing. London (GB).
Chahtane H, Vachon G, Le Masson M, The´venon E, Pe´rigon S, Mihajlovic N. 2013 A variant of LEAFY reveals its capacity to stimulate meristem development by inducing RAX1. Plant J. 74: 678–689.
Dinas Pertanian Yogyakarta. 2012. Standard Operating Procedure Bawang Merah Gunung Kidul. Indonesia.
Engelhorn J, Moreau F, Fletcher JC, Carless CC, 2014. ULTRAPETALA1 and LEAFY pathways function independently in specifying identity and determinancy at the Arabidopsis floral meristem. Ann Bot. 114: 1497-1505.
Fornara F, de Montaigu A, and Coupland, G. 2010. Snapshot: control of flowering in Arabidopsis. Cell. 141. 550–550.e2.
Hanano S, Goto K. 2011. Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 is involved in the regulation of flowering time and inflorescence development through transcriptional repression. Plant Cell. 23, 3172 3184.
Irish, VF. 2010. The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development. Plant J. 61, 1014–1028.
Jack T. 2004. Molecular and genetic mechanisms of floral control. Plant Cell. 16: 1–17.
Jin R, Klasfeld S, Zhu Y, Fernandez GM, Xiao J, Han SK. 2021. LEAFY is a pioneer transcription factor and licenses cell reprogramming to floral fate. Nat Commun. 12:626.
Kobayashi K, Yasuno N, Sato Y, Yoda M, Yamazaki R, Kimizu M. 2012. Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three AP1/FUL-Like MADS-box genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS-box gene. Plant Cell 24: 1848–1859.
Kim DH, Sung S. 2014. Genetic and epigenetic mechanism underlying vernalization. The Arabidopsis Book 11: e0171.
Lai X, Blanc MR, Grand VL., Huang Y, Stigliani A, Lucas J. 2021. The LEAFY floral regulator displays pioneer transcription factor properties. Mol Plant 14, 829–837.
Lai X, Verhage L, Hugouvieux V, Zubieta C. 2018. Pioneer factors in animals and plants-colonizing chromatin for gene regulation. Molecules. 23:1914.
Lee J, Lee I. 2010. Regulation and function of SOC1, a flowering pathway integrator. Journal of experimental botany. 61(9): 2247-2254.
Li W, Zhou Y, Liu X, Yu P, Cohen JD, and Meyeriwitz EM. 2013. LEAFY controls auxin response pathways in floral primordium formation. Sci Signal. 6: ra23.
Li C, Luo L, Fu Q, Niu L. 2014. Indentification and characterization of the FT/TFL1gene family in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas. Plant Mol Biol Rep. doi:10.1007/s1 1105-014-0747-8.
Liu Y, Yang J, yang M. 2015. Pathways of flowering regulation in plants. Chin J Bio. 31(11): 1553-1566.
Liu Y, Qian Z, Nan M, Huwei S, Chachao L, Guibing H, Jincheng W, Shunquan L, Zhihong Z. 2017. Over-expression of EjLFY-1 leads to an early floweringhabit in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) and its asexsual progeny. Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00496.
Ma YP, Zhou YZ, Wang YZ, Wei JX, Yu ZY, Yang S, Wang Y, Dai SL. 2013. CnFL, a FLORICAULA/LEAFY, homolog in Chrysanthemum nankingense, is dramatically upregulated in induced shoot apical meristems. Biochem Syst and Ecol. 50: 114–120.
Marlin, Maharijaya A, Purwito A, Sobir. 2018. Molecular diversity of the flowering related gene (LEAFY) on shallot (Allium cepa var. Aggregatum) and allium relatives. SABRAO J Breed Genet. 50 (3): 313-328.
Michaels, SD. 2009. Flowering time regulation produces much fruit. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 12, 75–80.
Moyroud E, Kusters E, Monniaux M, Koes R, and Parcy F. 2010. LEAFY blossoms. Trends Plant Sci. 15, 346–352.
Pasriga R, Yoon J, Cho L, Ahn G. 2019. Over expression of RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) Induces Extremely Early Flowering in Rice. Mol Cells. 42 (5): 406-417.
Pastore JJ, Limpuangthip A, Yamaguchi N, Wu MF, Sang Y, Han SK. 2011. LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY2 acts together with LEAFY to activate APETALA1. Development. 138, 3189–3198.
Prahardini PER, Sudaryono T. 2018. The true seed of shalott (TSS) technology production on trisula variety in East Java. J Pal. 9 (1): 27-32.
Pose D, Yant L, Schmid M. 2012. The end of innocence: flowering networks explode in complexity. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 15, 45–50.
Rosliani R, Palupi ER, Hilman Y. 2013. Pengaruh benzilaminopurin dan boron terhadap pembungaan, viabilitas serbuk sari, produksi, dan mutu benih bawang merah di dataran rendah . J Hort. 23(4):339-349.
Seonghoe J. 2015. Fungtional characterization of PhapLEAFY, a FLORICAULA/LEAFY ortholog in Phalaenopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 0 (0) 1-14.
Silva CS, Puranik S, Round A, Brennich M, Jourdain A, Parcy F, Hugouvieux V, Zubieta C. 2016. Evolution of the plant reproduction master regulators LFY and the MADS transcription factors: the role of ptotein structurein evolutionary development of the flower. Front Plant Sci. 6:1193.
Siriwardana NS, Lamb RS. 2012. The poetry of reproduction: the role of LEAFY in Arabidopsis thaliana flower formation. Int J Dev Biol. 56(4): 207–221. doi:10.1387/ijdb.113450ns.
Sung SB, Amasino RM. 2004. Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature. 427(6970): 159-164.
Suhesti K. 2017. Kajian fotoperiodisme dan vernalisasi untuk induksi pembungaan bawang merah (Allium cepa L. Agregatum group) di dataran rendah. [Tesis]. IPB University, Bogor. [Indonesia].
Tang M, Tao YB, Fu Q, Song Y, NiuL, Xu ZF. 2016. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropa curcas regulates flowering timeand floral organ development. Sci Rep. 6:37306.
Thouet J, Quinet M, Lutts S, Kinet JM, Perillieux C. 2012. Repression of floral meristem fate iscrucial in shaping tomato inflorescence. PLoS One. 7 (2): e31096.
Wang G, Tian C, WangY, Wan F, Hu L, Xiong A, Tian J. 2019. Selection ofreliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in garlic undersaltstress. PeerJ. doi 10.7717/peerj.7319.
Winter CM, Austin RS, Befaume SB, Reback MA, Monniaux M, Wu MF, Sang Y, Yamaguchi A, Yamaguchi N, Parker JE, Parcy F, Jensen ST, Li H, Wagner D. 2011. LEAFY target genes reveal floral regulatory logic, cis motifs, and a link to biotic stimulus response. Dev cell. 20, 430-443.
Yamaguchi N, Wu MF, Winter CM, Berns MC, Nole-Wilson S, Yamaguchi A. 2013 A molecular framework for auxin-mediated initiation of flower primordia. Dev Cell 24: 271–282.
Yamaghuci N, Wu MF, Winter CM, Wagner D. 2014. LFY and polar auxin transport coordinately regulate Arabidopsis flower development. Plants. 3: 251-265.
Yamaguchi N, Winter CM, Wu MF, Kanno Y, Yamaguchi A, Seo M. 2014. Gibberellin acts positively then negatively to control onset of flower formation in Arabidopsis. Science. 344, 638–641.
Yang C, Ye Y, Song C, Chen D, Jiang B, Wang Y. 2016. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 473 (4):1100–1105.
Yang T, Du MF, Guo YH, Liu X. 2017. Two LEAFY homologs ILFY1 and ILFY2 control reproductive and vegetative developments in Isotes L. Sci Rep. 7:225.
Zhang T, Chao Y, Kang J, Ding W, Yang Q. 2013. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene regulating flowering time from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Mol Biol Rep. 40(7):4597-603. doi: 10.1007/s11033-013-2552-0.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>