Short Communication: First report of Nectria haematococca causing a moler disease on shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

MARIANI
DEWA NGURAH SUPRAPTA
I MADE SUDANA
I GEDE RAI MAYA TEMAJA
I MADE SUDANTHA

Abstract

Abstract. Mariani, Suprapta DN, Sudana IM, Temaja IGRM, Sudantha IM. 2022. Short Communication: First report of Nectria haematococca causing a moler disease on shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2768-2774. Moler disease caused by Nectria haematococca is the main disease of shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Moler disease caused significant yield loss and even crop failure. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the pathogen causing moler disease on shallots. This research was conducted from February 2018 to November 2019. Survey was conducted at 13 shallot planting locations in West Nusa Tenggara, namely: Ngali, Ncera, Cenggu, Renda, Sajang, Rensing, Dasan Baru, Batu Layar, Anyar, Sembalun, Jerowaru, Batujai and Sakuru Village. Ten infected plants were taken, at each observation point, then put in a labeled plastic bag and brought to the laboratory for isolation purposes. The results showed that pathogen causing moler disease on shallot was isolated NTB2018. On PDA isolate NTB2018 produced white color colony, the mycelium growth direction was sideways with smooth mycelium structure, sideways growth direction of mycelium and fine structure mycelium. The fungus produced insulated mycelium consisting of macroconidia and microconidia as asexual spores and ascospores as sexual spores. Based on analysis of 18S rRNA gene, isolate NTB2018 DNA fragment of ±569 bp.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
REFRENCES
Alexopoulus, C.J. And C.W. Mims. 1979. Introductory Mycology. Third Edition. New York: Jhon Wiley & Sons.
Alwiguna, A. 2010. “Uji Sinergisme beberapa Jamur Patogenik dalam Meningkatkan Kerusakan Gulma Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes)” (skripsi). Mataram: Mataram University.
Cano, J., J. Guarro and J. Gene. 2004. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Colletotricum Species of Clinical Interest (American Society for Microbiology). J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 2450-2454.
Duarte, M.D.L.R. and Simon A.A. Invitro Toxin Production by Fusariumsolanif.sp. piperis. 2003.FitopatologiaBlasileira. 28: 229-235.
Futane, A.S., Dandnaik B.P., Salunkhe S.S., Jadhav P.P., and Magar S.J. 2018. Management of Storage Diseases of Onion by Using Different Fungicides and Antibiotics. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7 (2): 1149-1158.
Garibaldi, A., D. Bertetti, P. Pensa, G. Ortu, and M.L. Gullino. 2016. First Report of Stem Rot Caused by Fusariumoxysporumf.sp. opuntiarumon Mammilariazeilmannianain Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (1): 171-185.
Hawthorne, B.T., J. Rees-George, R.N. Crowharst. 2001. Induction of Cutinolytic Esterase Activity during Saprophytic Growth of Cucurbit Pathogens, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitaeRaces One and Two (Nectria haematococca MPI and MPV, respectively). Elsevier Science. 194: 135-141.
Hidayati, N., Pienyani R., dan Ninik K. 2019. Perlakuan Trichoderma koningii dan Biourine terhadap Pengendalian Penyakit Moler (Fusarium oxysporum), Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalanicum L.) di Tanah Mineral. Agrikan. 12 (1): 83-92.
Hikmahwati, M. Rifky A., Ramlah, Fitrianti. Identifikasi Cendawan Penyebab Penyakit Moler pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalanicum L.) di Kabupaten Enrekang. Agrovital: Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian. 5 (2): 83-86.
Ilhe, B.M., Musmade N. dan Kawade S.B. 2013. Studies on basal bulb rot of onion coused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae.International Journal of Plant Protection. 6 (2): 364-366.
Jee, H-J., Kyung-Yeol R., Chang Ki S., and Ki W.N. 2005. Occurance of Stem and Fruit Rot of Paprika Caused by Nectriahaematococca. Plant Pathol. J. 21 (4): 317-321.
Juwanda, M., Khusnul K., dan M. Amin. 2016. Peningkatan Ketahanan Bawang Merah terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium melalui Induksi Ketahanan dengan Asam Salisilat secara Invitro. Agrin. 20 (1): 15-28.
Kawuri, R. 2012. “Pemanfaatan Streptomyces thermocarboxydus untuk Mengendalikan Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Daun pada Lidah Buaya (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) di Bali” (disertasi). Denpasar: Udayana University.
Kumar, S., K. Tamura, L.B. Jakobsen and M. Nei. 2001. MEGA2: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Sofware. Bioinformatics. 17: 1244-1245.
Kumar, K.P.S, Bhowmik D., Chiranjib, Biswajit, and Pankaj T. 2010. Allium cepa: A traditional medicinal herb and its health benefits. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2 (1): 283-291.
Lutfia Q. A., D. 2018. Kombinasi Trichoderma harzianum dan Pupuk Mikoriza untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Moler pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (serial online), [Dowloaded 3 January 2022]. from: URL: https://repository.unej.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/86268/Dwi%20Lutfia%20Qurratul%20Aini%20131510501223.pdf?sequence=1.
Maharani, E. 2015. “NTB Ditetapkan menjadi Sentra Bawang Merah Nasional”. Republika, 10 Oktober. (serial online), [Diunduh 1 September 2019]. Dari: URL: https://m.republika.co.id.
Mariani. 2009. “Uji Efektivitas Jamur Endofit Antagonis terhadap Jamur Fusariumoxysporum f.sp. cubense” (skripsi). Mataram: Mataram University.
Mariani dan Sugiarta. 2016. Budidaya Bawang Merah Organik. First Edition. Mataram: Al-Haramain Lombok.
Melgarejo, A.B., Rosendo B-M., Veronica A.O-J., Paloma P.C-J., Jose O.J-Z., Pedro U.B-R. 2021. Differential Responses of Antioxidative System during the Interaction of Soursop Fruits (AnnonamuricataL.) and Nectriahaematococcaat Postharvest Storage (serial online), [Dowloaded 25 January 2022].from: URL: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/plants. DOI: 10.3390/10071432.
Nadhifa, A. 2021. Nectria haematococca (serial online), [Downloaded4 December 2021]. from: URL: Error! Hyperlink reference not valid..
O’ Donnel, K. 2000. Molecular Phylogeny of the Nectriahaematococca – FusariumsolaniSpecies Complex. Mycologia. 92 (5): 919-938. DOI: 10.2307/3761588.
Pangastuti, A. 2006. Defenisi Spesies Prokaryota berdasarkan Urutan Basa Gen Penyandi 16s rRNA dan Gen Penyandi Protein. Biodiversitas. 7: 338-347.
Photita, W., P.W.J. Taylor, R. Ford, K.D. Hyde and S. Lumyong. 2005. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Colletotrichum Species from Herbaceous Plants in Thailand. J. Fang. Divers. 18: 117-133.
Ploetz, R.C. 1998. Fusarium Wilt (Panama Diseases). First Edition. St Paul: APS Press.
Romadhon, N. Q. dan Mudji S. 2018. Pengaruh Komposisi Media Tanam dan Biourin Sapi terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalanicum L.)(serial online), [Downloaded 21 May 2020]. from: URL: http://protan.studentjournal.ub.ac.id/index.php/protan/article.
Sari W. dan Siti A. 2020. Inventarisasi Penyakit Dua Varietas Lokal Bawang Merah (Allium ascalanicum L.) Bima Brebes dan Trisula. Jurnal Pro-Stek. 2 (2): 64-71.
Setiyowati, Sri H, dan Rini B.H. 2010. Pengaruh Perbedaan Konsentrasi Pupuk Organik Cair terhadap Produksi Bawang Merah (Allium ascalaconicum L.). BIOMA. 12 (2): 44-48.cepae Penyebab Penyakit Moler pada Bawang Merah.
Sudantha, I.M. 2015. “Pemanfaatan Bioaktivator dan Biokompos untuk Meningkatkan Kesehatan, Kuantitas, dan Kualitas Hasil Bawang Merah”(laporan penelitian mandiri). Mataram: Mataram University.
Suganda, T. and Satryo R.A. 2017. Uji Pendahuluan Efek Fungisida Bunga Kembang Telang (Clitoria ternatea L.) terhadap Jamur Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Jurnal Agrikultura. 28 (3): 136-140.
Sulistiyono, L., Rudy C. T., Bunasor S., dan Dadang. 2008. Pengetahuan Sikap dan Tindakan Petani Bawang Merah dalam Menggunakan Pestisida. J. Agroland. 15 (1): 12-17.
Taieb, S.K.H. and M.A. Triki. 2016. First Report of NectriahaematococcaAssociated with Dieback of Olive Trees in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (1): 171-185.
Thomspson, J.D, T.J. Gibson, F. Plewniak, F. Jeanmougin and D.G. Higgins. 1997. The Clustal_X Windows Interface: Flexible Strategies for Multiple Sequence Alignment Aided by Quality Analysis Tool. Nucl. Acids Res. 25: 4876-4884.
Tripathi, P.C. and Lawande K.E. 2016. Therapeutic and Medicinal value of onion and garlic (serial online), [Downloaded 14 June 2019]. from: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303803436.
Umiyati, D.U. 2017. Pengaruh Inokulasi Trichoderma sp. dan Varietas Bawang Merah terhadap Penyakit Moler dan Hasil Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalanicum L.). Jurnal Kultivasi. 16 (2): 340-348.
Wardlaw, C.W. 1972. Banana Disease. First Edition. London: Longman, Green, and Co LTD.
Wibowo, A., E. Kaeni, T. Toekidjo, S. Subandiyah, E. Subandiyah, E. Sulistyaningsih, and S. Harper. 2016. Responses of Four Shallot (Allium cepa L. Agregatum Group) Cultivars to Moler Disease (Fusarium spp.) after Bulb Treatment(serial online). [Downloaded12 January 2022]. from: https://www.actahort.org/books/1143/1143_11.htm.
Wiyatiningsih, S. 2003. Kajian asosiasi phytophthora sp. dan Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici penyebab penyakit layu fusarium pada bawang Merah. Maperta. 5: 1-6.
Wu, Y-K, Guo-Teng, Jin-Young Y. 2011. First Report of Nectria haematococca Causing Root Rot Disease of Physic Nut (Jatrophacurcas) In China. Australian Plant Dis. 6: 39-42. DOI: 10.1007/s13314-011-0014-x.
Yang, L., Wei F., Guang-Qiang L., Ming Z., Guang-Hui Z., Sheng-Chao Y., Zhen-Gui M., Long-Gen L., and Jun-Wen C. 2018. Infestation of Nectriahaematococcain Soil, a Clue for the Replant Disease PanaxNotoginseng Revealed by 454 Pyrosequencing. Pak. J. Bot. 50 (6): 2401-2408.