Urine biochemical profile analysis and transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy detection in the endangered lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis)




Abstract. Bowolaksono A, Mayasari A, Sundari AM, Simamora ATJ, Suryaningsih R, Suryawan A, Simamora ATJ, Abinawanto, Sjahfirdi L, Hasna A, Supriatna J, Kyes RC. 2022. Urine biochemical profile analysis and transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy detection in the endangered lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Biodiversitas 23: 6056-6061. The population of lowland anoas (Bubalus depressicornis) has decreased significantly due to illegal hunting and habitat loss. As such, the urgency in developing successful ex-situ conservation programs cannot be overstated. Ex-situ breeding programs of anoas, however, are hindered by difficulties in early pregnancy detection. The failure to detect pregnancy at an early stage often results in miscarriage due to repeated breeding attempts of unconfirmed pregnant females. Moreover, frequent false heat during 5 to 6 months of pregnancy corroborated the repeated breeding of pregnant females. Therefore, early detection techniques are needed to improve breeding success. The present study evaluated the use of urine biochemical profiles as a minimally invasive approach for early pregnancy detection and transabdominal ultrasonography as a confirmation tool of false heat in four lowland anoas. Statistical analysis showed that glucose and protein level were significantly elevated during pregnancy since the 0 days of post-mating (p<0.05) and consistently higher compared to the non-pregnant period. Meanwhile, transabdominal ultrasonography successfully identified organ structures and development by the 155th, 176th, 180th, and 191st days of pregnancy. The present study suggests that urine biochemical data provide a promising, minimally invasive approach to early pregnancy detection in anoas. Incorporating urine data and ultrasonography can significantly help to maintain pregnancy by validating false heat.


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