Non-destructive modeling using a drilling resistance tool to predict wood basic density of standing trees in a eucalypts plantation in North Sumatra, Indonesia




Abstract. Singh KP, Siregar IZ, Abad JIM, Karlinasari L. 2022. Non-destructive modeling using a drilling resistance tool to predict wood basic density of standing trees in a eucalypts plantation in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 6218-6226. Eucalypts are globally selected as the main tree species for pulp and paper industries owing to their good potential growth and wood traits. Wood basic density, which is related to wood biomass yield, is one of the most important wood traits for pulp production and has become a focus in the tree improvement program. Evaluation of this trait in the field is needed to efficiently develop tree improvement programs. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of basic density in the vertical direction of standing trees, including Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, and E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrid (commonly called “urograndis”), and to develop a model for predicting wood basic density using micro-drilling resistance tools of ResistographÒ. The results showed that basic density traits varied within individual trees and within and between species. Average whole tree basic wood densities of 379.9 kg/m3, 400.5 kg/m3, and 440.6 kg/m3 were found for E. grandis, hybrid urograndis, and E. urophylla at 44 months old, respectively. The model developed had a good correlation for predicting wood basic density at 1.3 m height and whole tree basic density, with the R2 for model calibration ranging from 0.52 to 0.76 for 1.3 m wood basic density prediction and from 0.62 to 0.79 for whole tree wood basic density. This study found that the three species of eucalyptus could be used to create a combined model for predicting wood basic density that could be used for each individual species. The model for single and multiple species had a good validation with R2 from 0.51 to 0.72.


Bouffier L, Charlot C, Raffin A, Rozenberg P, Kremer A. 2008. Can wood density be efficiently selected at early stage in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait). Annals of Forest Science. 65(1): 106 – 106.
Bouvet JM, Saya A, Vigneron P. 2009. Trends in additive, dominance and environmental effects with age for growth traits in Eucalyptus hybrid populations. Euphytica 165: 35–54.
Couto AM, Trugilho PF, Neves TA, Protásio TDP, Sá VAD. 2012. Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods. Cenre. 19(1): 27-34.
Cremonez VG, Bonfatti JEA, Andrade ASD, Silva ELD, Klitzke RJ, Klock U. 2019. Wood basic density effect of Eucalyptus grandis in the paper making. Journal of Material Science. 24(3).
Da Silva Oliveira JT, Wang X, Vidaurre GB. 2017. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique. Holzforschung. 71(2): 137-145.
Dos Santos KF, Ludvichak AA, Queiroz TB, Schumacher MV, de Araújo EF. 2019. Biomass production and nutrient content in different Eucalyptus genotypes in Pampa Gaúcho, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias (Agrária). 14(4).
Downes GM, Lausberg M, Potts BM, Pilbeam DL, Bird M, Bradshaw B. 2018. Application of the IML Resistograph to the infield assessment of basic density in plantation eucalypts. The AUST Journal of Science and Technology. 81(3):177-85.
Hutajulu EF, Anna N, Siregar EBM. 2015. Uji Infeksi Cylindrocladium sp pada Tiga Klon Hibrid Eucalyptus grandis × eucalyptus pellita. Peronema Forestry Science Journal. 4(3): 148–158.
Isik F, Li BL. 2003. Rapid assessment of wood density of live trees using the Resistograph for selection in tree improvement programs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 33(12): 2426-2435.
Karlinasari L, Danu MI, Nandika D, Tujaman M, Bogor D, Ipb K. 2017. Drilling resistance method to evaluate density and hardness properties of resinous wood of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Wood Research. 62(5):683–690.
Leksono B. 2009. Breeding zones based on genotype-environment interaction in seedling seed orchards of Eucalyptus pellita in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Forest Research. 6(1): 74–84.
Magaton ADS, Colodette JL, Gomes Gouvea ADF, Gomide JL, dos Santos Muguet MC, Pedrazzi C. 2009. Eucalyptus wood quality and its impact on kraft pulp production and use. TAPPI J. 8(8): 32–39.
Martins GS, Yuliarto M, Antes R, Sabki, Prasetyo A, Unda F, Mansfield SD, Hodge GR, Acosta JJ. 2020. Wood and pulping properties variation of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. and sampling strategies for accurate phenotyping. Forests. 11(10): 1043.
Mindawati N, Indrawan A, Mansur I, Rusdiana O. 2010. Kajian Pertumbuhan Tegakan Hybrid Eucalyptus urograndis Di Sumatera Utara Growth of Eucalyptus Urograndis Hybrid in North Sumatera. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman. 7(1): 39–50.
Miranda I, Pereirat H. 2001. Provenance effect on wood chemical composition and pulp yield for Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Appita Journal. 54(4): 347–351.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya, 15.
Pádua FAD, Tomeleri JOP, Franco MP, Silva JRMD, Trugilho PF. 2019. Recommendation of non-destructive sampling method for density estimation of the Eucalyptus wood. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología. 21(4): 565–572.
Quilhó T, Miranda I, Pereira H. 2006. Within-tree variation in wood fibre biometry and basic density of the urograndis eucalypt hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla). IAWA Journal. 27(3): 243-254.
Ratcliffe B, Hart FJ, Klápšt? J, Jaquish B, Mansfield SD, El-Kassaby YA. 2014. Genetics of wood quality attributes in western larch. Annals of Forest Science. 71(3): 415–424.
Raymond CA. 2002. Genetics of Eucalyptus wood properties. Annals of Forest Science. 59(5-6): 525-531.
Retief ECL, Stanger TK. 2009. Genetic parameters of pure and hybrid populations of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla and implications for hybrid breeding strategy. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science. 71: 133–140.
Rezende GDS, de Resende MDV, De Assisn TF. 2014. Eucalyptus breeding for clonal forestry. In Challenges and Opportunities for the World’s Forests in the 21st Century. Springer, Dordrecht. 81: 393-424
TAPPI T 258 om-02. 2006. Basic density and moisture content of pulpwood. Tappi Test Methods. Tappi Press, Atlanta, GA.
Sumardi S, Kurniawan H, Prastyono P. 2016. Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits in an Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake progeny test in Timor Island Indonesian Journal of Forest Research. 3(2): 119–127.
Walker TD, Isik F, McKeand SE. 2019. Genetic variation in acoustic time of flight and drill resistance of juvenile wood in a large loblolly pine breeding population. Forest Science. 65(4): 469-482.
Wu S, Xu J, Li G, Risto V, Du Z, Lu Z, Li B, Wang W. 2011. Genotypic variation in wood properties and growth traits of Eucalyptus hybrid clones in southern China. New Forests. 42(1): 35–50.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>